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TRANSGENDER: History Timeline and Studies

This article offers a detailed Transgender History Timeline, as well as significant cases, law, and studies involving the LGBT movement; with primarily focus on the transgendered.  It also explains transgender reassignment surgery and studies that followed many of these individuals.

TRANSGENDER HISTORY TIMELINE

Tenth Amendment 1791: “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States…”

Fourteenth Amendment 1868:  “No state shall …deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” (Rights are not extended to that which is criminal…)

In 1885 the Criminal Law Act was passed in the UK, which made homosexual behavior illegal; although sodomy or buggery has been illegal in various countries for centuries.  And it was by the Jews more than 3,000 years ago according to the Hebrew bible.

Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld, German physician, sexologist and advocate for homosexual and transgender rights coined the term ‘transsexual’ in 1923.  He had coined the term ‘transvestite’ is 1910.

Dr. Harry Benjamin, German-born, American endocrinologist, sexologist and advocate for homosexual and transgender rights was influenced by Hirschfeld, and knew him personality.    Moreover, Benjamin was asked in 1948, to take a case of a boy desiring to be a girl, by Alfred Kinsey (bisexual sexologist, professor and bestselling author, who with biased and false data significantly influenced changes in the law that led to same-sex marriage laws in the UK and USA).  Benjamin, the first doctor to do so, treated the child with Premarin (estrogen) which began production in 1941.  He went on to treat hundreds of patients likewise.  At that time sexual ‘reassignment ‘ surgery was illegal in the US and Denmark (where Benjamin had referred many ‘patients’ to doctors Cauldwell and Stoller.)

In 1952, ONE Inc. of Los Angeles was founded.

In 1952, George William – ‘Christine’ Jorgensen became the first American to have a ‘sex change’ surgery and hormone treatment (in Denmark).   In 1959, transwoman Jorgensen was denied a marriage license in New York.

After World War II, the subject of sexual orientation began to be addressed.  In 1947, Alfred Kinsey, an atheist scientist and bisexual, founded the Institute for Sex Research.   His 1948 book, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male was at the top of the best-sellers list.  In 1953, he released Sexual Behavior in the Human Female.   By 1955, the American Law Institute published a new edition of their Model Penal Code.  Several pages of the Code cited Kinsey’s research; and the new code drafted by the notable organization of lawyers and judges was a significant move for sexual orientation laws.

The 1955 Model Penal Code moved for states to repeal their sodomy laws and ‘criminal penalties for consensual sexual relations conducted in private.’  At that time homosexual conduct was a felony in all 50 states.  In 1957, the ACLU stood with homosexuals pleading for due process.  That year the Wolfenden Report came out in England; influenced by Kinsey, it recommended eliminating criminal penalties for private consensual acts.   Also, in September, Eisenhower signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1957.  The Act established a Commission on Civil Rights, criminal punishments, and issued ‘equal protection’ especially for African American rights to vote.

May 1959, police and individuals from the ‘LGBT community’ have several clashes in Los Angeles, primarily at a drag queen favorite spot called Cooper’s Donuts.

Before 1963, the practice of homosexuality (sodomy or buggery) and in most places many things associated with it – such as cross dressing – was illegal in every US state and could bring about penalties from fines to imprisonment from 1 to 20 years (except GA were a second offense could be 10 to 30).  By the 1960s, the majority of Americans did not want to imprison individuals for abortions or homosexuality.

In 1963, Rita (Reed) Erickson became a patient of Dr. Benjamin.  In 1964, the lesbian/transman Industrialist founded the Erickson Educational Foundation (EEF) which contributed millions toward influencing the LGBTQ movement over the next two decades.  She/he was the first female graduate of LSU’s school of mechanical engineering.  Rita was a student at a Philadelphia H.S. where she was involved with other ‘lesbians.’

In 1965, Johns Hopkins Medicine became the first academic medical center to perform gender-affirming surgeries for transgender people.

August 1966, LGBT riots took place in San Francisco at Compton’s Cafeteria.  That year Dr. Benjamin published ‘the Transsexual Phenomenon.’

June 1969, transwoman Sylvia Rivera led the Stonewall riots in Manhattan’s West Village at the Stonewall Inn, were police raids led to hundreds chanting ‘gay power’ as many were arrested; and they led to a much more public gay rights movement.  The next year Rivera and M. Johnson started STAR (Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries).

In 1972 William Johnson became the first openly homosexual ordained minister.

By the 1970’s, gay and lesbian characters, such as Billy Crystal in SOAP (1977), began appearing on TV shows.

In 1975, Minneapolis passed a law prohibiting discrimination against transgender people; although assault and battery was and is against the law in the US.

In 1975, Richard Raskind underwent male-to-female sex ‘reassignment’ surgery.  In 1977, the New York Supreme Court ruled that ‘Renee’ Richards could play professional tennis as a woman.  He took the name ‘Renee’ because it was French for ‘reborn.’

In 1976, the Superior Court of NJ ruled that transsexuals could marry based on ‘gender identity.’  In 1999, the Fourth Court of Appeals in Texas ruled marriage licenses could be refused based on ‘gender identity’ where the parties are not opposite-sex.

In 1979, the Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association was founded.  In 2007 it changed its name to the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH.org).  The institute promotes a self-regulated ‘standard of care’ for the treatment of gender identity disorder.  Their first three ‘International Symposia’ meetings were sponsored by the EEF and took place before the Association came forth: in London (1969), Denmark (1971) and Yugoslavia (1973).   The fourth meeting was sponsored by Stanford University and took place in Palo Alto, CA 1975; and the 5th at Eastern Virginia Med. School (1977), etc. until the 24th in the Netherlands – 2016.

According to WRATH’s website (2017), “The EEF sponsored, or contributed to, innumerable public addresses, educational films, radio and television appearances, newspaper articles, a newsletter, educational pamphlets, an extensive referral list of service providers, and many early research efforts including Money & Green’s (1969) Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment and Money & Ehrhardt’s (1972) Man, Woman, Boy, Girl. During the late 1960s and early 1970s the EEF donated approximately US$250,000 to the support of projects about transsexualism. In particular, the Harry Benjamin Foundation received over US$60,000 (1964-1968) and the Johns Hopkins Gender Identity Clinic received approximately US$72,000 (1967-1973).”

In 1984, the United Methodist Church’s Judicial Council, after a debate from about 1,000 elders and delegates, overturned its ban against ‘practicing homosexual ministers.’

In 1987, the American Psychiatric Association added ‘gender identity disorder’ to their Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders.

In 1991, the Episcopal Church approved lesbian ‘pastor’ Jane Spahr.

In 1992, Interfaith Task Force became Interfaith Advocates for LGBT People.

August 1992, the first International Conference on Transgender Law and Employment Policy took place in Houston.  It was sponsored by the Gulf Coast Transgender Community (GCTC).  The conference noted, “Transgendered persons include transsexuals, transgenderists, and other crossdressers of both sexes, transitioning in either direction (male to female or female to male), of any sexual orientation, and of all races, creeds, religions, ages, and degrees of physical impediment.”

In 1993, the Presbyterian Church (USA) reversed its position on gay minister which was held since 1861.  In 1993, the first homosexual marriage was performed in a Presbyterian Church, though 72% of their churches voted to ban such acts.

In 1993, Minnesota became the first state to establish a law specifically against discrimination to transgender people.   That Christmas eve in Nebraska, transman Teena Ranae Brandon (anatomically female) was kidnapped, beaten and raped and escaped after being told not to tell the police are Teena would be ‘silenced permanently.’  After doing a rape kit at an emergency room and informing the police that Nissen and Lotter were to blame; the two on New Year’s eve broke into Teena Brandon’s rental house and murdered DeVine, Lambert and Brandon in front of Lambert’s two year old.  Nissen testify against Lotter for a life-sentence plea deal; and John Lotter (on Death Row) last appeal was ‘shot down’ February 2017.   Ironically, Marvin Nissen later admitted that it was he who fired the shots.

In 1994, AOL started the ‘the Gazebo’ Chat Room for transgender conversions.

In 1995, Frye and Wilchins began lobbying in Washington for the movement.  Phillip ‘Phyllis’ Randolph Frye is has been called the ‘grandmother of transgender law.’  In 2010, Frye began the first openly transgendered judge (Houston, TX).   ‘Riki Anne’ Wilchins founded GenderPAC for LGBT rights in 1995.

In 1998, 34 year old transgendered/transvestite ‘Rita’ Hester was stabbed 20 times in ‘her’ own apartment in Massachusetts, dying on arrived at the Boston hospital.  (The next year G. Smith founded the Transgender Day of Remembrance).  Rita’s death reignited the ‘hate crime’ discussion.  Over the next 15 years about 200 ‘transgendered’ individuals were murdered at least in part due to their identification.

June 1998, African-American James Byrd Jr. was murdered by white supremacists.  Byrd was dragged behind a truck for about 3 miles on an asphalt road and was killed when his head was severed after hitting a culvert.  One of his murders was killed by lethal injection in 2011.  October 1998, homosexual Matthew Shepard was beaten with a pistol, tortured and left to die and did so about a week later due to injuries.   Their deaths would be remembered in 2009 Hate Crime legislation.

In 2001, Rhode Island became the second state to enact a nondiscrimination law against transgender people.

In 2001, the Kansas Supreme Court refused to allow a transwoman to inherit their partner’s property based solely on ‘gender identity’ and that the marriage between to men was invalid.

In 2002, the Transgender Law Center opened in San Francisco.

In 2003, a California school district paid $ 1.1 million to six students who alleged their classmates repeatedly harassed them because of their sexual orientation and the school administration did not adequately address the harassment…  Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students, like all other students, are protected by the Fourteenth Amendment and statutory requirements of equal treatment under the law…”

May 2003, George W. Bush became the first president to welcome a transgendered person (‘Petra Leilani Akwai’) to the White House indirectly during a Yale class of 68’ reunion.  Although in 2004 Bush stated he supported a constitutional amendment banning gay marriage.

In 2003, the National Center for Transgender Equality was founded.

In 2004, the British Parliament passed the Civil Partnership Act allowing homosexual partners the same ‘rights and responsibilities’ as married couples.  In December 2005, throughout the UK over 1,200 ‘ceremonies’ of homosexuals took place within the first three days that the Act became law.

In 2004, Massachusetts became the first US state to legalize same-sex marriage.

In 2005, California became the first state to enact the Insurance Gender Nondiscrimination Act which would not allow Insurance companies to restrict LGBTs and their ‘partners’ and children from health insurance.

In 2008, Just the Facts Coalition issued their edition of Just the Facts about Sexual Orientation and Youth: A Primer for Principals, Educators, and School Personnel. It states (reading):

“The information in this booklet has been developed by a coalition of education, health, mental health, and religious organizations that share a concern for the health and education of all students in schools, including lesbian, gay, and bisexual students.   We know you also share this concern – that all students have an opportunity to learn and develop in a safe and supportive environment.  The reason for publishing this booklet now is to provide you, as principals, educators, and school personnel, with accurate information that will help you respond to a recent upsurge in promotion of efforts to change sexual orientation through therapy and religious ministries. …Sexual orientation conversion therapy refers to counseling and psychotherapy to attempt to eliminate individual’s sexual desires for members of their own sex.  Ex-gay ministry refers to the religious groups that use religion to attempt to eliminate those desires… such as Focus on the Family.

This booklet provides information from physicians, counselors, social workers, psychologists, legal experts, and educators who are knowledgeable about the development of sexual orientation in youths… All teenagers face certain developmental challenges, such as developing social skills, thinking about career choices, and fitting into a peer group…  However, lesbian, gay and bisexual youths must also cope with the prejudice, discrimination, and violence in society, and, in some cases, in their own families, schools, and communities… It is important that… school environments be open and accepting so these young people will feel comfortable… The idea that homosexuality is a mental disorder or that the emergence of same-sex attraction and orientation among some adolescents is in any way abnormal or mentally unhealthy has no support among any mainstream health and mental health professional organizations…  The American Academy Of Pediatrics advises youth that counseling may be helpful for you if you feel confused about your sexual identity.  Avoid any treatments that claim to be able to change a person’s sexual orientation

The American Counseling Association …adopted a position opposing the promotion of ‘reparative therapy’ as a ‘cure’ for individuals who are homosexual.  The American Psychiatric Association… 1997 Resolution, which is endorsed by the National Association of School Psychologists, states: ‘That the APA opposes portrayals of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth and adults as mentally ill due to their sexual orientation and supports the dissemination of accurate information about sexual orientation.’  The American School Counselor Association, in its position …states: ‘Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and questioning (LGBTQ) youth often begin to experience self-identification during their pre-adolescent or adolescent years, as do heterosexual youth.  These developmental processes are essential cognitive, emotional and social activities… they are not signs of illness, mental disorder or emotional problems… It is not the role of the professional school counselor to attempt to change a student’s sexual orientation/gender identity but instead to provide support to LGBTQ students to promote student achievement and personal well-being…”

The National Association of Social Workers, in its policy …states: ‘…it endorses policies in both the public and private sectors that ensure non-discrimination; that are sensitive to the health and mental health needs of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people; and that promote an understanding of lesbian, gay and bisexual cultures…  Sexual orientation conversion therapies assume that homosexual orientation is both pathological and freely chosen.  No data demonstrate that reparative or conversion therapies are effective, and in fact they may be harmful.   NASW believes social workers have the responsibility to clients to explain the prevailing knowledge concerning sexual orientation… NASW reaffirms its stance against reparative therapies and treatments designed to change sexual orientation…’

June 2009, Sonny and Cher’s Chastity Bono came out as ‘Chaz.’   About that time, President Obama nominated the first transgender federal appointees, ‘Dylan Orr.’

In 2009, President Obama signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act establishing a multiplier to criminal penalties where the crime was committed in part because of the victim’s ‘gender identity’ or ‘sexual orientation.’

In 2010, Parliament passed the Equality Act to ‘protect rights of individuals… against direct and indirect discrimination …extending protection in private clubs to sex, religion… and gender reassignment’ and to all ‘civil partnerships on religious premises.’  By 2010, 21 of the 51 countries in Europe recognized ‘same-sex’ unions.

May 2011, Obama’s Office of Personnel Management issued a memo to federal agencies on how to support transgender employees.  In 2012 the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ruled that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 also applied to all LGBTs.

In 2012, K. Broadus, founder of the Trans People of Color Coalition testified before the Senate in support of the Employment Non-Discrimination Act.

In 2012, the Girl Scouts amended its policy, and allowed children in based on ‘gender identification.’

In 2013, after centuries of agreement in the medical profession otherwise, the American Psychiatric Association changed its The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders from saying ‘gender identity disorder’ to ‘gender dysphoria.’  Thus, saying in essence it was not a MENTAL DISORDER, but only a state of dissatisfaction and stress.

April 2013, New Zealand legalized gay marriage.  In May: Rhode Island, Delaware, and Minnesota became the 11th – 13th states to allow same-sex marriage; the Boy Scouts voted to accept gays; President Francois Hollande of France signed a law authorizing marriage and adoptions for same-sex couples; Brazil’s Justice National Council legalized same-same marriage; and Britain’s House of Commons passed a Gay Marriage bill.  In June, the Supreme Court struck down section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act, companies such as AIG, Intel & Facebook were pro same-sex marriage. By December, New Jersey, Hawaii, Illinois, New Mexico and Utah passed same-sex marriage bills.

March 2013: the Supreme Court in Windsor v. US, said the Defense of Marriage Act was unconstitutional.

In February 2014, a U. S. District judge in Texas ruled the state ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional, making it the twentieth state.  A year later, in 2015, 37 U.S. states allowed same-sex marriages, civil unions, or respected out-of-state marriages. Due to these laws, states began banning Gay Conversion Therapy.  Moreover, in 2014 Family Medical Leave, Veterans Affairs and Social Security laws extended to same-sex couples.  However, only 3 states accepted gay marriage by popular vote and 8 by state legislature; yet, 26 of 37 states issued their laws based solely on court decisions.  Moving with the wave, in 2015, Ireland legalized Gay marriage.  More importantly, June 26, 2015, the US Supreme Court legalized same-sex marriage.

In 2014, Duke University published its first Transgender Studies Quarterly.

May 2014, the DHH amended its 1981 policy to include the option of ‘sex reassignment surgery’ under Medicare.

December 2014, the DOJ stated that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act applied to discrimination based on ‘gender identity.’

January 2015, Obama became the first President to speak of transgender people in a State of the Union address.

June 2015, Bruce Jenner, came out as ‘Caitlyn.’

October 2016: Johns Hopkins Medicine Center issued a letter ‘to the LGBT Community’ stating it ‘will soon begin providing gender-affirming surgery.’

TRANSGENDER STUDIES, PROCEDURES and EXPLANATIONS

Johns Hopkins Psychiatrist, Dr. Paul McHugh has studied transgendered people for 40 years and was the Distinguished Service Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University and was psychiatrist-in-Chief  for 26 years at J. H. Hospital, said, “transgendered men Do Not become women, nor do transgendered women become men.”

In a June 2015 the article, Transgenderism: A Pathogenic Meme, written to the Witherspoon Institute Dr. McHugh in part stated:

“…I’ve been studying people who claim to be transgender. Over that time, I’ve watched the phenomenon change and expand in remarkable ways.  A rare issue of a few men—both homosexual and heterosexual men, including some who sought sex-change surgery because they were erotically aroused by the thought or image of themselves as women—has spread to include women as well as men. Even young boys and girls have begun to present themselves as of the opposite sex. Over the last ten or fifteen years, this phenomenon has increased in prevalence, seemingly exponentially…

Publicity, especially from early examples such as “Christine” Jorgenson, “Jan” Morris, and “Renee” Richards, has promoted the idea that one’s biological sex is a choice, leading to widespread cultural acceptance of the concept. And, that idea, quickly accepted in the 1980s, has since run through the American public like a revelation or “meme” affecting much of our thought about sex…

The champions of this meme, encouraged by their alliance with the broader LGBT movement, claim that whether you are a man or a woman, a boy or a girl, is more of a disposition or feeling about yourself than a fact of nature. And, much like any other feeling, it can change at any time, and for all sorts of reasons…

At Johns Hopkins, after pioneering sex-change surgery, we demonstrated that the practice brought no important benefits. As a result, we stopped offering that form of treatment in the 1970s.  Our efforts, though, had little influence on the emergence of this new idea about sex, or upon the expansion of the number of “transgendered” among young and old.

This history may clarify some aspects of the latest high-profile transgender claimant. Bruce Jenner, the 1976 Olympic decathlon champion, is turning away from his titular identity as one of the “world’s greatest male athletes.” Jenner announced recently that he “identifies as a woman” and, with medical and surgical help, is busy reconstructing his physique.

…These men wanted to display themselves in sexy ways, wearing provocative female garb.  More often than not, while claiming to be a woman in a man’s body, they declared themselves to be “lesbians” (attracted to other women)…

…But the meme—that your sex is a feeling, not a biological fact, and can change at any time—marches on through our society.  …Many onlookers to the contemporary transgender parade, knowing that a disfavored opinion is worse than bad taste today, similarly fear to identify it as a misapprehension.  …I am ever trying to be the boy among the bystanders who points to what’s real.  I do so not only because truth matters, but also because overlooked amid the hoopla—enhanced now by Bruce Jenner’s celebrity and Annie Leibovitz’s photography—stand many victims.

Think, for example, of the parents whom no one—not doctors, schools, nor even churches—will help to rescue their children from these strange notions of being transgendered and the problematic lives these notions herald. These youngsters now far outnumber the Bruce Jenner type of transgender. Although they may be encouraged by his public reception, these children generally come to their ideas about their sex not through erotic interests but through a variety of youthful psychosocial conflicts and concerns.

First, though, let us address the basic assumption of the contemporary parade: the idea that exchange of one’s sex is possible. …Transgendered men do not become women, nor do transgendered women become men. All (including Bruce Jenner) become feminized men or masculinized women, counterfeits or impersonators of the sex with which they “identify.” In that lies their problematic future.

When “the tumult and shouting dies,” it proves not easy nor wise to live in a counterfeit sexual garb. The most thorough follow-up of sex-reassigned people — extending over thirty years and conducted in Sweden, where the culture is strongly supportive of the transgendered—documents their lifelong mental unrest. Ten to fifteen years after surgical reassignment, the suicide rate of those who had undergone sex-reassignment surgery rose to twenty times that of comparable peers (LGBT’s without the surgery).

 How to Treat Gender Dysphoria: So how should we make sense of this matter today? As with any mental phenomenon, what’s crucial is noting its fundamental characteristic and then identifying the many ways in which that characteristic can manifest itself.

The central issue with all transgender subjects is one of assumption—the assumption that one’s sexual nature is misaligned with one’s biological sex. This problematic assumption comes about in several different ways, and these distinctions in its generation determine how to manage and treat it.

Based on the photographic evidence one might guess Bruce Jenner falls into the group of men who come to their disordered assumption through being sexually aroused by the image of themselves as women. He could have been treated for this misaligned arousal with psychotherapy and medication. Instead, he found his way to surgeons who worked him over as he wished. Others have already commented on his stereotypic caricature of women as decorative “babes” …a view that understandably infuriates feminists—and his odd sense that only feelings, not facts, matter here. …Future men with similar feelings and intentions should be treated for those feelings rather than being encouraged to undergo bodily changes. Group therapies are now available for them.

Most young boys and girls who come seeking sex-reassignment are utterly different from Jenner. They have no erotic interest driving their quest. Rather, they come with psychosocial issues—conflicts over the prospects, expectations, and roles that they sense are attached to their given sex—and presume that sex-reassignment will ease or resolve them.  The grim fact is that most of these youngsters do not find therapists willing to assess and guide them in ways that permit them to work out their conflicts and correct their assumptions. Rather, they and their families find only “gender counselors” who encourage them in their sexual misassumptions.

 Those with Gender Dysphoria Need Evidence-Based Care: There are several reasons for this absence of coherence in our mental health system.  Important among them is the fact that both the state and federal governments are actively seeking to block any treatments that can be construed as challenging the assumptions and choices of transgendered youngsters. “As part of our dedication to protecting America’s youth, this administration supports efforts to ban the use of conversion therapy for minors,” said Valerie Jarrett, a senior advisor to President Obama.

In two states, a doctor who would look into the psychological history of a transgendered boy or girl in search of a resolvable conflict could lose his or her license to practice medicine. By contrast, such a physician would not be penalized if he or she started such a patient on hormones that would block puberty and might stunt growth.

What is needed now is public clamor for coherent science—biological and therapeutic science—examining the real effects of these efforts to “support” transgendering. Although much is made of a rare “intersex” individual, no evidence supports the claim that people such as Bruce Jenner have a biological source for their transgender assumptions. Plenty of evidence demonstrates that with him and most others, transgendering is a psychological rather than a biological matter.

In fact, gender dysphoria—the official psychiatric term for feeling oneself to be of the opposite sex—belongs in the family of similarly disordered assumptions about the body, such as anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder. Its treatment should not be directed at the body as with surgery and hormones any more than one treats obesity-fearing anorexic patients with liposuction. The treatment should strive to correct the false, problematic nature of the assumption and to resolve the psychosocial conflicts provoking it. With youngsters, this is best done in family therapy.

The larger issue is the meme itself. The idea that one’s sex is fluid and a matter open to choice runs unquestioned through our culture and is reflected everywhere in the media, the theater, the classroom, and in many medical clinics. It has taken on cult-like features: its own special lingo, internet chat rooms providing slick answers to new recruits, and clubs for easy access to dresses and styles supporting the sex change. It is doing much damage to families, adolescents, and children and should be confronted as an opinion without biological foundation wherever it emerges.  But gird your loins if you would confront this matter. Hell hath no fury like a vested interest masquerading as a moral principle.”  Full article: http://www.thepublicdiscourse.com/2015/06/15145/

The Williams Institute estimates that about .3% of the US population identifies as transgender, and between 100 and 300 have reconstructed surgical procedures in the U.S. and about 2,400 worldwide; with Thailand leading.  Thailand is renowned for being a ‘sex tourism’ destination and had as much as 100,000 male prostitutes in 2015.  A United Nations National Institutes of Health study revealed that transgender prostitution was a significant factor in the country’s HIV rates.  The Netherlands has similar problems with their sex workers, many of which are transgendered.

May 2007, Dr. Russell Reid, the UK’s best-known ‘EXPERT’ on transsexualism, was found guilty of gross misconduct for rushing patients into sex-changing surgeries.  The General Medical Council forces Reid to turn over his files at that time.

A 2014 study revealed that Amsterdam has more male prostitutes than female prostitutes. “75% of the windows in the red light district are filled with male prostitutes, 5% are transgender and only 20% are female…”

Swedish study published in 2011 on ‘Long-term Follow-Up to Transsexual Persons Undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery’ followed ‘324 sex-reassigned persons’ from 1973 to 2003 and concluded, “Persons with transsexualism, after sex reassignment, have considerably higher risks for mortality, suicidal behaviour, and psychiatric morbidity than the general population. Our findings suggest that sex reassignment, although alleviating gender dysphoria, may not suffice as treatment for transsexualism.”

2017: Navin Singh, M.D. on the East Coast advertises ‘Free your inner beauty,’ and explains some surgery procedures.  Under ‘MTF’ Male to Female ‘transitioning,’ he offers various plastic surgeries, ‘Trach Shave’ to improve ‘feminine neck angles…’ ‘Laser Hair Removal of a beard and other unwanted facial hair…’ ‘Rhinoplasty… narrow bridge… for a sexier lady like nose…’ ‘liposuction… body fat grafting…’  ‘fillers for the lips…’ ‘Latisse – eyelashes reveal feminine eyes…’  ‘Brow Ridge Filler… for FTM’ ‘Body Contouring with Smart Lipo…’ ‘MTF breast augmentation surgery…’ ‘subcutaneous mastectomy for FTM.’

Transgender surgery typically follows years of hormone therapy to alter secondary sex characteristics to the desired gender.  Gender surgery primarily follows WPATH guidelines.  Most are cosmetic; however, some involve the serious internal and external genitalia surgery.  That is surgery to ‘ALTER the body parts.’  First androgens are given to women to enhance male characteristics such as facial and body hair; and estrogen and anti-androgens are given to men and alter musculature and skin distribution; and to reduce body hair.

In male to female MTF surgery, the testicles and most of the penis are removed and the urethra is cut shorter; and skin is used to fashion a ‘functional vagina.’  Sensation can remain due to parts of the remaining and folded penis; yet, men retain their prostates – glands that surround urethra (tubular passage through which urine is discharged from the bladder).

In female to male FTM surgery, the breasts, uterus and ovaries are removed during two operations.  A ‘neophallus,’ surgically constructed penis, is made from tissue grafts from other parts of the body, such as the forearm.  This expensive procedure extends the urethra to allow urination, and is subject to serious complications.

Surgeries cost about $50,000 for MTF and $75,000 FTM (2015); although under President Obama’s Medicare insurance will cover some of the costs.

The American College of Pediatricians in their Journal of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics has published many studies on difficulties of children of same-sex couples.  Likewise, the British Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Jan. 2015; reported a study of children of 512 same-sex parents which found that “emotional problems were over twice as prevalent for children with same-sex parents than for children with opposite-sex parents.  And the risk was elevated in the presence of parent psychological distress, moderated by family instability…”

Note: The Journal of Sexual Medicine (June 2016, Vol. 13, Issue 6) in their article, Reversal Surgery in Regretful Male-to-Female Transsexuals after Sex Reassignment Surgery reported, “…misdiagnosed patients sometimes regret their decision… from Nov. 2010 through Nov. 2014, seven men 33 to 53 years old with previous male-to-female SRS underwent reversal phalloplasty… prosthesis and penile implants…’ were required.

The Alliance for Therapeutic Choice and Scientific Integrity, which expanded from NARTH, has been involved in conversion therapy for decades and has had numerous members who have been awarded the highest honors in psychology.  ATCSI has many studies showing success of conversion therapy.

http://www.therapeuticchoice.com/mission-statement

 

 

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