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ISLAM: Eid al-Adha, Five Pillars & Jerusalem is from Judaism & Christianity

The fact that a billion people follow the Muslim or Christian religion, whether Sunni or Catholic, Shia or Protestant, does not change the truths that the Hebrew religion came first and that all religions have added many traditions of men.   This exhaustive article will examine: (1) a brief timeline of historical events, (2) oral tradition and ancient writings, (3) why are the Jews so few, (4) investigate the origins of the teaching of Eid-al-Adha (‘Festival of the Sacrifice’) and (5) the Five Pillars of Islam (Shahada – creed; profession of faith, Salat – prayer, Zakat – alms, Sawm – fasting, Hajj – pilgrimage). (6) Jerusalem was not in the Qur’an, and Mahammad never visited the Holy City.

We were all born, educated and nearly all raised by family or custodians; and thus, usually influenced more by our surroundings than by the truth.  This means depending on where you were born will most likely determine what your education, culture, traditions and religion will be during your childhood.   Thus, in order to find truth, one must put aside the biases of all that they were taught by family, friends and schools and sincerely seek out what is taught concerning history and the events, research the event through several credible sources and compare such, as well as pursue the truth with wisdom and reason.

When three religions agree, there is likely some truth to be found in that agreement; but when they all oppose each other, at least two must be wrong by logical reasoning.   Finding the truth may be a shock to many, but it can result in bringing one closer to the Lord God if they will let it.

Terms and Definitions

Jewish laws and customs:

Akedah (Hebrew): Jewish teaching of the “binding of Isaac’ on Mount Moriah.

Shema (Hebrew): ‘Listen’ or ‘Hear,’ Beginning of Jewish creed.

Shacharit, Mincha, Maariv: Three Daily Prayers according to the Jews (Hebrew).

Ma’aser (Hebrew): the tithe, the tenth, also commanded by Moses from the Lord God.

Yom Kippur (Hebrew): Day of Atonement, the fasting day.

Feast of Passover: Jews made pilgrimage, ‘going up’ to the Temple in Jerusalem.

Christianity:

Christians follow the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) account of binding of Isaac.

Jesus taught: creeds, prayer, fasting, giving and going/loving/service.

Islamic laws and customs:

Eid-al-Adha: Muslim/Islam teaching of “Festival of the Sacrifice.”

Shahada: ‘the testimony’ or Islamic creed.

Salat: ‘prayer,’ the second pillar of Islam.

Zakat: ‘that which purifies,’ alms-giving obligation or tax.

Sawm: ‘to fast’ or ‘fasting,’ fourth of the five pillars of Islam.

Hajj: ‘pilgrimage,’ or journey to Mecca, the last Islamic pillar.

 

 

Chronology of Historical Events

Calendar Dates: Islamic/Hijri = Hijri; Hebrew/Jewish = Jewish; Gregorian/Western = Christian

 

Event

(some dates are approximated without c.)

Year from Creation Jewish Christian Hijri
God created Adam (the first man) Day 1 Day 1 3761 BC -4515 AH
Year of the Flood 1656 1656 2105 BC -2808 AH
Abraham was born 1948 1948 1813 BC -2507 AH
Abraham was called by God to land of Canaan 2023 2023 1738 BC -2430 AH
Ishmael – born of Hagar (Egyptian servant of Sarah) 2034 2034 1727 BC -2419 AH
Isaac was born of Sarah (wife of Abraham) 2048 2048 1713 BC -2419 AH
Binding of Abraham’s son Isaac 2084/5 2084 1677 BC
Islam teaches it was Ishmael that was offered -2367 AH
Levi born of Jacob (Israel) 2194 2194 1565/7BC -2254 AH
Moses (descendant of Levi) – Exodus from Egypt 2448 2448 1313 BC -2419 AH
Moses receives the Commandments of God 2448 2448 1313 BC -1992 AH
David King of Israel 2892 2892 869 BC -1534 AH
Scribes compile Hebrew Scriptures 2893 2893 868 BC -1533 AH
First Temple of Jews completed in Jerusalem 2935 2935 827 BC -1491 AH
First Temple destroyed by Babylonians 3175 3175 586 BC -1243 AH
Second Temple built in Jerusalem 3412 3412 349 BC -998 AH
Dead Sea Scrolls (Hebrew Scripture) written      between 200 BC and 68 CE/AD
Jesus Christ is born 3756 3756 5 BC -644 AH
Jesus is crucified and rises from the death 3789 3789 29 -611 AH
Christianity spread by Christ’s disciples 30 – now
Second Temple destroyed by Romans 3829 3829 70 -569 AH
Jews scatter to the ends of the world         68 AD to 1948/1967 (Six Day War)
Height of the Roman Empire 3877 3877 117 -520 AH
Early Christian Bible manuscripts written       Between c. 65 AD and 400 AD
Uncle Abu Talib teaches Muhammad religions 4340s 580s -40s AH
Muhammad claims vision from angel Gabriel 4371 610 -12 AH
Muhammad’s ‘Hijra’to Medina from Mecca 4383 622 0
Capture of Mecca in Saudi Arabia by Muhammad 4391 630 9
Abu al-Qasim Muhammad dies 4393 632 11
Abu Bakr & Ali ibn Abi Talib both claim succession 4393 632 11
Muslim Conquests begins 4394 633 12
Uthman has Qur’an / Koran written c. 4411 c. 650 29
Dome of the Rock built over Hebrew Temple Ruins 4452 4452 691 71
Muslim empire – MENA / into Europe   700s Muslim Empire (Caliphs) into Europe
West Africa being conquered/converted to Islam   900s Muslim conquest into Western Africa
Catholic and Orthodox Christian split/schism   Great Schism / East-West Schism of 1054
Saladin becomes Sultan of Egypt and Syria 4935 4935 1174 569
Genghis Khan and Mongols conquers Persia 4980s- 4980s 1220s 620s
Ottoman Turks conquer Egypt, Syria & Middle East Muslim Ottoman Empire: c. 1299 – 1922
War World I – Ottoman Empire partitioned After WWI (1914-1918) land was partitioned
British mandate over Palestine 5680 5680 1920 1338
Israel becomes a state (capital Jerusalem) 5708 5708 1948
(2) Understanding Oral Tradition and Ancient Writings

Much of what has been taught from ancient history was been passed down by oral tradition.   All the ancient cultures and religions have transferred history, literature and information through oral tradition: Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism and of course Judaism.  The histories and legends of ancient civilizations relied on oral tradition until around 2nd century BC.  And even then, most people were illiterate.

The world has very few ancient writings that have survived on leather, papyrus or paper.   Yet, we have cuneiform (mostly on clay tablets) from Mesopotamia and the Sumerians (c. 3000 BC), hieroglyphs from Egypt (≤ c.2100 BC), metal steles (such as Hammurabi’s Code; c.1750 BC, Jiaguwen – Bone script from China (≤ 1000 BC), Mesha Stele (Moabite text, c.850 BC), and Small Seal Script and Clerical Script in China (3rd to 1st century BC). According to archaeology.org “cuneiform replaced by alphabet in first century BC.”

https://www.archaeology.org/issues/213-1605/features/4326-cuneiform-the-world-s-oldest-writing

The Ancient History Encyclopedia (ancient.eu) reports that the oldest Greek writings include: Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey (c. 700 BC), Herodotus’ Histories (c. 415 BC) and works of Plato (such as Apology or The Republic; c. 400 BC).  Yet, the oldest surviving manuscript of Plato’s Tetralogies is in the Bodleian Library, brought from a monastery in 1801 and was copied by Johannes of Constantinople in 895, more about 1300 years after the original.  Fragments of Homer’s Iliad in papyrus date to 2nd century CE/AD.  The earliest papyri of Sophocles’s Greek play Ichneutae (c. 450 BC) is from 2nd century papyrus found in Oxyrhynchus; and a papyrus of Aristotle’s (c.340 BC) Constitution of the Athenians was dated to around c. 100 AD/CE, more than 400 years after the original work.

Much written ancient history comes from only a few dozen historians who lived between 400 BC and 400 AD, such as: Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Ctesias, Theopompus, Ptolemy, Berossus, Timaeus, Artapanus, Cato, Galius, Agatharchides, Sima Tan, Sima Qian, Liu Xiang, Julius Caesar, Dionysius, Flavius Josephus, Plutarch, Suetonius, and Eusebius of Caesarea.

Homer’s Iliad had 643 manuscript copies survive; with the first complete text from the 1200s.  It is a far second to the New Testament of the Christian Bible, which has several complete texts before 500 AD, over 5,000 partial and complete texts that survived before the first Qu’ran was printed.  There are over 10,000 Latin Vulgate copies of the New Testament that have survived, over 4,000 Slavic, over 2,000 Armenian and Ethiopic, over 350 Syriac, and even 75 in Arabic.   The earliest copy of Herodotus’ Histories (400 BC) is from about 900 AD.   We have fragments of New Testament copies 50 to 100 years away from the original, and dozens of writings of the early church fathers (1st century to 6th century) that have commentaries on New Testament verses. Codex Vaticanus (c. 325), Codex Sinaiticus (c. 350), Codex Alexandrinus (c. 400) and Codex Ephraemi (c. 400s) all contain between most to nearly the entire Bible (Old and New Testaments).

See the source image

The Dead Sea Scrolls

The Dead Sea Scrolls are one of the most important discoveries to history and religion ever found.   In the words of the Dead Sea Scrolls Museum, “The Bible is the cornerstone of the Jewish people and this fundamental text has left its imprint on Christianity and Islam.  The …Aleppo Codex (10th century CE; also on display at the Museum) the most accurate manuscript of the Masoretic text and the closest to the text of the printed Hebrew Bibles used today.  The Shrine of the Book was built as a repository for the first seven scrolls discovered at Qumran in 1947.”

Note the important facts that the Dead Sea Scrolls preceded the Quran by hundreds of years and that they prove the accuracy of today’s Bible to the originals.  Also note that originally, the Old Testament or Hebrew Scriptures (TaNak = Torah, Nevi’im – Prophets, Ketuvi’im – Writings) were written on about 16 scrolls and not in 39 books.   The Septuagint Scrolls were in Greek (2nd century BC) and the basis for many modern Hebrew Bibles and the King James Version (1611) Old Testament.

The 16 Scrolls of the complete Tanakh, Old Testament Scrolls on display in Glen Rose, Texas

TaNaKh   https://scrolls4all.org/scrolls/tnk/

The Museum tells of the find: “The first seven Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered by chance in 1947 by Bedouin, in a cave near Khirbet Qumran on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea.  Three of the scrolls were immediately purchased by archaeologist E. L. Sukenik on behalf of the Hebrew University; the others were bought by the Metropolitan of the Syrian Orthodox Church in East Jerusalem, Mar A. Samuel.  In 1948 Samuel smuggled the four scrolls in his possession to the United States; it was only in 1954 that Sukenik’s son, Yigael Yadin, also an archaeologist, was able to bring them back to this country (Israel).  Over the next few years, from 1949 to 1956, additional fragments of some 950 different scrolls were discovered, both by Bedouins and by a joint archaeological expedition of the École Biblique et Archéologique Française and the Rockefeller Museum, under the direction of Professor Father Roland de Vaux.”

The Museum adds: “One of the greatest spiritual revolutions in human history was launched toward the end of the First Temple period, when the Jewish people began to shape their ancient traditions into holy scriptures.  This process gathered momentum particularly after the destruction of the Temple and the Babylonian exile in the late 6th century BCE and culminated in the first centuries CE with the canonization of the corpus of sacred books we now call the Hebrew Bible, which paved the way for both the New Testament and the Koran.  By virtue of this contribution to human culture, the Jewish people came to be known as ‘the People of the Book.’  …The Bible tells us that during the reign of Josiah, King of Judah (639-609 BCE), the high priest Hilkiah found ‘a scroll of the Law (likely Deuteronomy) in the Temple.”

https://www.imj.org.il/en/wings/shrine-book/dead-sea-scrolls

https://www.ancient-hebrew.org/biblical-history/extant-manuscripts-of-the-hebrew-bible.htm

During the time of the Greek and Roman Empires – Judah or Judea remained a province.

Image result for judea roman province

Roman Empire about 117 AD

(3) WHY ARE THE JEWS SO ANCIENT BUT SO FEW?

The Jews or Hebrew are the oldest religious people in the world.  The word Hebrew is said to be derived from ‘Eber,’ meaning ‘from the other side’ (of the River Euphrates – the seat of civilization), which comes from ‘Eber’ the great grandson of ‘Shem, son of Noah (Genesis chapter 11; note Abraham was 10 generations from Noah and 5 from Eber.).’

The Lord God said to Jacob (Israel): “I am God, the God of your father… Do not be afraid to go down to Egypt, for I will make you into a great nation there.  I will go down to Egypt with you, and I will surely bring you back again… those who went to Egypt with Jacob … were 70 in all (Genesis 46).”   “The descendants of Jacob numbered seventy in all; Joseph was already in Egypt…  the Israelites were exceedingly fruitful and multiplied greatly, increased in numbers… and filled the land…  Joseph and his brothers died… A new king, to whom Joseph meant nothing, came to power in Egypt (Exodus chap. 1).”

And the king (Pharaoh) said, “lest they multiply… let us set taskmasters over them (make them slaves)… and the Egyptians made the Jews lives bitter with hard bondage… (Exo. 1).”  “Now the children of Israel lived in Egypt 430 years [Exodus 12:40; then about 7 to 15 generations – life expectancy was still longer; between 120 years (Gen. 6:3) and 70 or 80 years (Psa. 90:10).]

“Now the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, ‘This month shall be …the first month of the year to you… It is the Lord’s Passover… for I will pass over the land of Egypt …and will strike… the blood of the lamb shall be a sign for you… when I see the blood, I will pass over you; and the plague shall not be on you…  And all the children of Israel did as the Lord commanded Moses… and the Lord brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt… (Exodus 12).”

Image result for historical atlas of the jewish people

CUT > in HALF – First Time: In the Wilderness

“Pharaoh had let the people go… by way of the wilderness of the Red Sea… (Exodus 13:17).  Yet, then the Egyptian armies pursued the Israelites… but “the Lord caused the sea to part, so the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea on dry ground… then the waters came back upon the Egyptians (Exo. 14).”  In the wilderness “all who were able to go to war in Israel numbered 603,550 (Numbers 1:46).”  OVER 2.5 to 3 million with women and children.

And the Israelites sinned in the wilderness.  They did not believe the Lord with protect and provide for them and give them the land of Canaan (Israel, Jerusalem and Palestine).  Moreover, they made a golden calf and worshipped it.  So the Lord kept them in the wilderness 40 years and Moses died and all those adults of his generation and before.  “Your bodies will fall in this wilderness – everyone 20 years of age or older because you complained against Me (Numbers 14:29).”

Then led by Joshua, “the people cross the Jordan River, the priests carrying the ark of the covenant ahead of them… (Joshua 3:14).”  “About 40,000 armed for battle crossed over before the LORD to the plains of Jericho for war… (Joshua 4:13).”  Thus, about 200,000 Jews.

CUT in HALF AGAIN – Second Time: Babylon Exile

A Historical Atlas of the Jewish People (1992) shows the Jews at the time of the Exodus, c. 1300 BC, at “.6% of the world population,” yet only register the men, thus .6 million.  Then after crossing the Jordan, they report .4 million.   Then they report 1.7% of the world’s population or 2 million during the reign of King David.  Then after the destruction of the First Temple and defeat by the Babylonians, the population went to about 140,000.

“In the 11th year of King Zedekiah… famine was in the city… no food to eat… then the city wall was broken through, and the whole army fled… at night through the gates… the Babylonians (Chaldeans) were surrounding the city.  They fled toward… Arabah, but the army of the Chaldeans were all around… The number of people Nebuchadnezzar carried into exile was 3,023 Jews… then… 4,600 in all (Jeremiah 52).”

Josephus (1st century) wrote on the Wars of the Jews and the Destruction of Jerusalem – of how, “at that time Titus Caesar sieged Jerusalem…” burned the city and stole from the Temple.

https://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/war-7.htm

Above from Arch of Titus in Rome showing Temple items beginning carried away to Rome 70 AD.

CUT in HALF AGAIN – Third Time: Roman Legions

A Historical Atlas of the Jewish People shows the Jews at about 3 to 5 million or 1.6 to 2% of the world’s population in 65 AD, before the start of the Jewish Wars with the Roman Empire.   After the Wars and the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 AD, they report the Jews as about .5% of the world’s population or about 1.2 to 1.6 million.  To this day, the Arch of Titus stands in Rome showing the Jewish slaves carry the Menorah to Rome.   Josephus claimed that 1.1 million people were killed.

CUT in HALF AGAIN – Fourth Time: by Nazi Germany

A Historical Atlas of the Jewish People shows the Jews at about 16.6 million or .7% of the world’s population in 1940 before Nazi Germany and others exiled and had them murdered, as well as exterminated during the Holocaust.    After they report 11 million.

The JewishVirtualLibrary.org (JVL) states, “The American Jewish Yearbook placed the total Jewish population of Europe at about 9.5 million in 1933… more than 60% of the world’s Jewish population, which was estimated at 15.3 million.  Most European Jews resided in eastern Europe, with about 5.5 million Jews living in Poland and the Soviet Union…. In little more than a decade, most of Europe would be conquered, occupied or annexed by Nazi Germany and most European Jews – 2 out of every 3 – would be dead.”  The JVL puts the total number of “Jews Killed” at 6.2 million or between 5 to 7 million.  In 2019, there are about 13.3 million Jews throughout the world and about half of them or 6.5 million in Israel.

https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/an-introductory-history-of-the-holocaust

Image result for holocaust camps graves

Genealogy

(according to Genesis, Chronicles, Matthew, Luke)

Generations: [Adam – Seth – Enos – Cainan – Mahalaleel – Jared – Enoch – Methuselah – Lamech – Noah – Shem – Arphaxad – Salah – Eber – Peleg – Reu – Serug – Nahor – Terah – Abram (ABRAHAM) – ISAAC – Jacob (ISRAEL) – JUDAH – Perez – Hezron – Ram – Amminadab – Nahshon – Salmon – Boaz – Obed – Jesse – DAVID – Solomon – Rehoboam – Abijah – Asa – Jehoshaphat – Ahaziah – Azariah – Jotham – Ahaz – Hezekiah – Manasseh – Amon – Josiah – Jehoiakim – Shealtiel – Pedaiah – Zerubbabel – Abiud – Eliakim – Azor – Zadok – Akim – Eliud – Eleazar – Matthan – Jacob – Joseph – Jesus (Immanuel the Christ).]   {Mary’s linage from DAVID: David – Nathan – Mattatha – etc. etc. – Matthat – Heli – Joseph.}

Image result for genealogy abraham to jesus

 

 

Family of Abraham and the binding/offering/sacrifice

(4) Origins of Abraham’s obedience and willing offering of his son:

The Akedah (Jewish), Binding of Isaac (Christian), Eid-al-Adha (Islam/Muslim)

MyJewishLearning.com states in its article, ‘The Binding of Isaac,’ “…The Binding of Isaac, known in Hebrew as the Akedah, is one of the best known – and most troubling – stories in the Bible.  In it, God orders Abraham to sacrifice his son, Isaac, on Mount Moriah.  Abraham agrees, but then is stopped at the last minute when God sends an angel who tells him to sacrifice a ram instead.  The story, in Genesis 22:1-19, is traditionally read on the second day of Rosh Hashanah, and references to it appear throughout the Rosh Hashanah liturgy.  Even the shofar (ram’s horn) blown on the holiday is said to be a reminder of the Akedah, and how Isaac was spared.

The Story appears in Parashat Vayera, the fourth portion in the annual Torah-reading cycle.  Parashat Vayera includes not just the Akedah, but …Sarah’s banishment of Hagar and Ishmael…”

Genesis 22:1-19: Hebrew Bible (translated in King James Verse):

“And it came to pass after these things, that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham: and he said, Behold, here I am. And he said, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of. And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God had told him. Then on the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off. And Abraham said unto his young men, Abide ye here with the ass; and I and the lad will go yonder and worship, and come again to you. And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took the fire in his hand, and a knife; and they went both of them together. And Isaac spake unto Abraham his father, and said, My father: and he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood: but where is the lamb for a burnt offering? And Abraham said, My son, God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering: so they went both of them together. And they came to the place which God had told him of; and Abraham built an altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar upon the wood. And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son. And the angel of the LORD called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham: and he said, Here am I. And he said, Lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him: for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son from me. And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind him a ram caught in a thicket by his horns: and Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering in the stead of his son. And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovah–jireh: as it is said to this day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen. And the angel of the LORD called unto Abraham out of heaven the second time, And said, By myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, for because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son: That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies; And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice. So Abraham returned unto his young men, and they rose up and went together to Beer–sheba; and Abraham dwelt at Beer–sheba.”

Christians believe in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Holy Bible (Scriptures)

Genesis 22:1-19: Hebrew Bible (translated in New King James Verse):

“Now it came to pass after these things that God tested Abraham, and said to him, “Abraham!”

And he said, “Here I am.”

Then He said, “Take now your son, your only son Isaac, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriah, and offer him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains of which I shall tell you.”

So Abraham rose early in the morning and saddled his donkey, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son; and he split the wood for the burnt offering, and arose and went to the place of which God had told him. Then on the third day Abraham lifted his eyes and saw the place afar off. And Abraham said to his young men, “Stay here with the donkey; the [a]lad and I will go yonder and worship, and we will come back to you.”

So Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering and laid it on Isaac his son; and he took the fire in his hand, and a knife, and the two of them went together. But Isaac spoke to Abraham his father and said, “My father!”

And he said, “Here I am, my son.”

Then he said, “Look, the fire and the wood, but where is the [b]lamb for a burnt offering?”

And Abraham said, “My son, God will provide for Himself the lamb for a burnt offering.” So the two of them went together.

Then they came to the place of which God had told him. And Abraham built an altar there and placed the wood in order; and he bound Isaac his son and laid him on the altar, upon the wood. 10 And Abraham stretched out his hand and took the knife to slay his son.

11 But the Angel of the Lord called to him from heaven and said, “Abraham, Abraham!”

So he said, “Here I am.”

12 And He said, “Do not lay your hand on the lad, or do anything to him; for now I know that you fear God, since you have not withheld your son, your only son, from Me.”

13 Then Abraham lifted his eyes and looked, and there behind him was a ram caught in a thicket by its horns. So Abraham went and took the ram, and offered it up for a burnt offering instead of his son. 14 And Abraham called the name of the place, [c]The-Lord-Will-Provide; as it is said to this day, “In the Mount of the Lord it shall be provided.”

15 Then the Angel of the Lord called to Abraham a second time out of heaven, 16 and said: “By Myself I have sworn, says the Lord, because you have done this thing, and have not withheld your son, your only son17 blessing I will bless you, and multiplying I will multiply your descendants as the stars of the heaven and as the sand which is on the seashore; and your descendants shall possess the gate of their enemies. 18 In your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed My voice.” 19 So Abraham returned to his young men, and they rose and went together to Beersheba; and Abraham dwelt at Beersheba.”

Book of Jasher

The Holy Bible references the ‘Book of Jasher’ (Sephir ha Yasher) in Joshua 10:13 and 2 Samuel 1:18. The Book of Jasher was originally written at least more than 1200 years before the Koran/Qur’an.

The Book of Jasher, as it often does, gives more details – most importantly that Isaac was not a young child, but a willing young man.  The offering/binding is in Chapter 23.

Book of Jasher, Chapter 21: concerning Ismael and Isaac

1 And it was at that time at the end of a year and four months of Abraham’s dwelling in the land of the Philistines in Gerar, that God visited Sarah, and the Lord remembered her, and she conceived and bare a son to Abraham.

2 And Abraham called the name of the son which was born to him, which Sarah bare to him, Isaac.

3 And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac at eight days old, as God had commanded Abraham to do unto his seed after him; and Abraham was one hundred, and Sarah ninety years old, when Isaac was born to them.

4 And the child grew up and he was weaned, and Abraham made a great feast upon the day that Isaac was weaned.

5 And Shem and Eber and all the great people of the land, and Abimelech king of the Philistines, and his servants, and Phicol, the captain of his host, came to eat and drink and rejoice at the feast which Abraham made upon the day of his son Isaac’s being weaned.

6 Also Terah, the father of Abraham, and Nahor his brother, came from Haran, they and all belonging to them, for they greatly rejoiced on hearing that a son had been born to Sarah.

7 And they came to Abraham, and they ate and drank at the feast which Abraham made upon the day of Isaac’s being weaned.

8 And Terah and Nahor rejoiced with Abraham, and they remained with him many days in the land of the Philistines.

9 At that time Serug the son of Reu died, in the first year of the birth of Isaac son of Abraham.

10 And all the days of Serug were two hundred and thirty-nine years, and he died.

11 And Ishmael the son of Abraham was grown up in those days; he was fourteen years old when Sarah bare Isaac to Abraham.

12 And God was with Ishmael the son of Abraham, and he grew up, and he learned to use the bow and became an archer.

13 And when Isaac was five years old he was sitting with Ishmael at the door of the tent.

14 And Ishmael came to Isaac and seated himself opposite to him, and he took the bow and drew it and put the arrow in it and intended to slay Isaac.

15 And Sarah saw the act which Ishmael desired to do to her son Isaac, and it grieved her exceedingly on account of her son, and she sent for Abraham, and said to him, Cast out this bondwoman and her son, for her son shall not be heir with my son, for thus did he seek to do unto him this day.

16 And Abraham hearkened to the voice of Sarah, and he rose up early in the morning, and he took twelve loaves and a bottle of water which he gave to Hagar, and sent her away with her son, and Hagar went with her son to the wilderness, and they dwelt in the wilderness of Paran with the inhabitants of the wilderness, and Ishmael was an archer, and he dwelt in the wilderness a long time.

17 And he and his mother afterward went to the land of Egypt, and they dwelt there, and Hagar took a wife for her son from Egypt, and her name was Meribah.

18 And the wife of Ishmael conceived and bare four sons and two daughters, and Ishmael and his mother and his wife and children afterward went and returned to the wilderness.

19 And they made themselves tents in the wilderness, in which they dwelt, and they continued to travel and then to rest monthly and yearly.

20 And God gave Ishmael flocks and herds and tents on account of Abraham his father, and the man increased in cattle.

21 And Ishmael dwelt in deserts and in tents, traveling and resting for a long time, and he did not see the face of his father.

22 And in some time after, Abraham said to Sarah his wife, I will go and see my son Ishmael, for I have a desire to see him, for I have not seen him for a long time.

23 And Abraham rode upon one of his camels to the wilderness to seek his son Ishmael, for he heard that he was dwelling in a tent in the wilderness with all belonging to him.

24 And Abraham went to the wilderness, and he reached the tent of Ishmael about noon, and he asked after Ishmael, and he found the wife of Ishmael sitting in the tent with her children, and Ishmael her husband and his mother were not with them.

25 And Abraham asked the wife of Ishmael, saying, Where has Ishmael gone? and she said, He has gone to the field to hunt, and Abraham was still mounted upon the camel, for he would not get off to the ground as he had sworn to his wife Sarah that he would not get off from the camel.

26 And Abraham said to Ishmael’s wife, My daughter, give me a little water that I may drink, for I am fatigued from the journey.

27 And Ishmael’s wife answered and said to Abraham, We have neither water nor bread, and she continued sitting in the tent and did not notice Abraham, neither did she ask him who he was.

28 But she was beating her children in the tent, and she was cursing them, and she also cursed her husband Ishmael and reproached him, and Abraham heard the words of Ishmael’s wife to her children, and he was very angry and displeased.

29 And Abraham called to the woman to come out to him from the tent, and the woman came and stood opposite to Abraham, for Abraham was still mounted upon the camel.

30 And Abraham said to Ishmael’s wife, when thy husband Ishmael returns home say these words to him,

31 A very old man from the land of the Philistines came hither to seek thee, and thus was his appearance and figure; I did not ask him who he was, and seeing you were not here he spoke unto me and said, When Ishmael thy husband returns tell him thus did this man say, when you come home put away this nail of the tent which thou hast placed here, and place another nail in its stead.

32 And Abraham finished his instructions to the woman, and he turned and went off on the camel homeward.

33 And after that Ishmael came from the chase, he and his mother, and returned to the tent, and his wife spoke these words to him,

34 A very old man from the land of the Philistines came to seek thee, and thus was his appearance and figure; I did not ask him who he was, and seeing you were not at home he said to me, When thy husband cometh home tell him, thus saith the old man, Put away the nail of the tent which thou hast placed here and place another nail in its stead.

35 And Ishmael heard the words of his wife, and he knew that it was his father, and that his wife did not honor him.

36 And Ishmael understood his father’s words that he had spoken to his wife, and Ishmael hearkened to the voice of his father, and Ishmael cast off that woman and she went away.

37 And Ishmael afterward went to the land of Canaan, and he took another wife and he brought her to his tent to the place where he then dwelt.

38 And at the end of three years Abraham said, I will go again and see Ishmael my son, for I have not seen him for a long time.

39 And he rode upon his camel and went to the wilderness, and he reached the tent of Ishmael about noon.

40 And he asked after Ishmael, and his wife came out of the tent and she said, He is not here my lord, for he has gone to hunt in the fields, and to feed the camels, and the woman said to Abraham, Turn in my lord into the tent, and eat a morsel of bread, for thy soul must be wearied on account of the journey.

41 And Abraham said to her, I will not stop for I am in haste to continue my journey, but give me a little water to drink, for I have thirst; and the woman hastened and ran into the tent and she brought out water and bread to Abraham, which she placed before him and she urged him to eat, and he ate and drank and his heart was comforted and he blessed his son Ishmael.

42 And he finished his meal and he blessed the Lord, and he said to Ishmael’s wife, When Ishmael cometh home say these words to him,

43 A very old man from the land of the Philistines came hither and asked after thee, and you were not here; and I brought him out bread and water and he ate and drank, and his heart was comforted.

44 And he spoke these words to me: When Ishmael thy husband cometh home, say unto him, The nail of the tent which thou hast is very good, do not put it away from the tent.

45 And Abraham finished commanding the woman, and he rode off to his home to the land of the Philistines; and when Ishmael came to his tent his wife went forth to meet him with joy and a cheerful heart.

46 And she said to him, An old man came here from the land of the Philistines and thus was his appearance, and he asked after thee and thou wast not here, so I brought out bread and water, and he ate and drank and his heart was comforted.

47 And he spoke these words to me, When Ishmael thy husband cometh home say to him, The nail of the tent which thou hast is very good, do not put it away from the tent.

48 And Ishmael knew that it was his father, and that his wife had honored him, and the Lord blessed Ishmael.

Book of Jasher, Chapter 22:

  1. And Ishmael then rose up and took his wife and his children and his cattle and all belonging to him, and he journeyed from there and he went to his father in the land of the Philistines.
  2. And Abraham related to Ishmael his son the transaction with the first wife that Ishmael took, according to what she did.
  3. And Ishmael and his children dwelt with Abraham many days in that land, and Abraham dwelt in the land of the Philistines a long time.
  4. And the days increased and reached twenty six years, and after that Abraham with his servants and all belonging to him went from the land of the Philistines and removed to a great distance, and they came near to Hebron, and they remained there, and the servants of Abraham dug wells of water, and Abraham and all belonging to him dwelt by the water, and the servants of Abimelech king of the Philistines heard the report that Abraham’s servants had dug wells of water in the borders of the land.
  5. And they came and quarreled with the servants of Abraham, and they robbed them of the great well which they had dug.
  6. And Abimelech king of the Philistines heard of this affair, and he with Phicol the captain of his host and twenty of his men came to Abraham, and Abimelech spoke to Abraham concerning his servants, and Abraham rebuked Abimelech concerning the well of which his servants had robbed him.
  7. And Abimelech said to Abraham, As the Lord lives who created the whole earth, I did not hear of the act which my servants did unto thy servants until this day.
  8. And Abraham took seven ewe lambs and gave them to Abimelech, saying, Take these, I pray thee, from my hands that it may be a testimony for me that I dug this well.
  9. And Abimelech took the seven ewe lambs which Abraham had given to him, for he had also given him cattle and herds in abundance, and Abimelech swore to Abraham concerning the well, therefore he called that well Beersheba, for there they both swore concerning it.
  10. And they both made a covenant in Beersheba, and Abimelech rose up with Phicol the captain of his host and all his men, and they returned to the land of the Philistines, and Abraham and all belonging to him dwelt in Beersheba and he was in that land a long time.
  11. And Abraham planted a large grove in Beersheba, and he made to it four gates facing the four sides of the earth, and he planted a vineyard in it, so that if a traveler came to Abraham he entered any gate which was in his road, and remained there and ate and drank and satisfied himself and then departed.
  12. For the house of Abraham was always open to the sons of men that passed and repassed, who came daily to eat and drink in the house of Abraham.
  13. And any man who had hunger and came to Abraham’s house, Abraham would give him bread that he might eat and drink and be satisfied, and any one that came naked to his house he would clothe with garments as he might choose, and give him silver and gold and make known to him the Lord who had created him in the earth; this did Abraham all his life.
  14. And Abraham and his children and all belonging to him dwelt in Beersheba, and he pitched his tent as far as Hebron.
  15. And Abraham’s brother Nahor and his father and all belonging to them dwelt in Haran, for they did not come with Abraham to the land of Canaan.
  16. And children were born to Nahor which Milca the daughter of Haran, and sister to Sarah, Abraham’s wife, bare to him.
  17. And these are the names of those that were born to him, Uz, Buz, Kemuel, Kesed, Chazo, Pildash, Tidlaf, and Bethuel, being eight sons, these are the children of Milca which she bare to Nahor, Abraham’s brother.
  18. And Nahor had a concubine and her name was Reumah, and she also bare to Nahor, Zebach, Gachash, Tachash and Maacha, being four sons.
  19. And the children that were born to Nahor were twelve sons besides his daughters, and they also had children born to them in Haran.
  20. And the children of Uz the first born of Nahor were Abi, Cheref, Gadin, Melus, and Deborah their sister.
  21. And the sons of Buz were Berachel, Naamath, Sheva, and Madonu.
  22. And the sons of Kemuel were Aram and Rechob.
  23. And the sons of Kesed were Anamlech, Meshai, Benon and Yifi; and the sons of Chazo were Pildash, Mechi and Opher.
  24. And the sons of Pildash were Arud, Chamum, Mered and Moloch.
  25. And the sons of Tidlaf were Mushan, Cushan and Mutzi.
  26. And the children of Bethuel were Sechar, Laban and their sister Rebecca.
  27. These are the families of the children of Nahor, that were born to them in Haran; and Aram the son of Kemuel and Rechob his brother went away from Haran, and they found a valley in the land by the river Euphrates.
  28. And they built a city there, and they called the name of the city after the name of Pethor the son of Aram, that is Aram Naherayim unto this day.
  29. And the children of Kesed also went to dwell where they could find a place, and they went and they found a valley opposite to the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there.
  30. And they there built themselves a city, and they called the name at the city Kesed after the name of their father, that is the land Kasdim unto this day, and the Kasdim dwelt in that land and they were fruitful and multiplied exceedingly.
  31. And Terah, father of Nahor and Abraham, went and took another wife in his old age, and her name was Pelilah, and she conceived and bare him a son and he called his name Zoba.
  32. And Terah lived twenty-five years after he begat Zoba.
  33. And Terah died in that year, that is in the thirty-fifth year of the birth of Isaac son of Abraham.
  34. And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years, and he was buried in Haran.
  35. And Zoba the son of Terah lived thirty years and he begat Aram, Achlis and Merik.
  36. And Aram son of Zoba son of Terah, had three wives and he begat twelve sons and three daughters; and the Lord gave to Aram the son of Zoba, riches and possessions, and abundance of cattle, and flocks and herds, and the man increased greatly.
  37. And Aram the son of Zoba and his brother and all his household journeyed from Haran, and they went to dwell where they should find a place, for their property was too great to remain in Haran; for they could not stop in Haran together with their brethren the children of Nahor.
  38. And Aram the son of Zoba went with his brethren, and they found a valley at a distance toward the eastern country and they dwelt there.
  39. And they also built a city there, and they called the name thereof Aram, after the name of their eldest brother; that is Aram Zoba to this day.
  40. And Isaac the son of Abraham was growing up in those days, and Abraham his father taught him the way of the Lord to know the Lord, and the Lord was with him.
  41. And when Isaac was thirty-seven years old, Ishmael his brother was going about with him in the tent.
  42. And Ishmael boasted of himself to Isaac, saying, I was thirteen years old when the Lord spoke to my father to circumcise us, and I did according to the word of the Lord which he spoke to my father, and I gave my soul unto the Lord, and I did not transgress his word which he commanded my father.
  43. And Isaac answered Ishmael, saying, Why dost thou boast to me about this, about a little bit of thy flesh which thou didst take from thy body, concerning which the Lord commanded thee?
  44. As the Lord liveth, the God of my father Abraham, if the Lord should say unto my father, Take now thy son Isaac and bring him up an offering before me, I would not refrain but I would joyfully accede to it.
  45. And the Lord heard the word that Isaac spoke to Ishmael, and it seemed good in the sight of the Lord, and he thought to try Abraham in this matter.
  46. And the day arrived when the sons of God came and placed themselves before the Lord, and Satan also came with the sons of God before the Lord.
  47. And the Lord said unto Satan, Whence comest thou? and Satan answered the Lord and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.
  48. And the Lord said to Satan, What is thy word to me concerning all the children of the earth? and Satan answered the Lord and said, I have seen all the children of the earth who serve thee and remember thee when they require anything from thee.
  49. And when thou givest them the thing which they require from thee, they sit at their ease, and forsake thee and they remember thee no more.
  50. Hast thou seen Abraham the son of Terah, who at first had no children, and he served thee and erected altars to thee wherever he came, and he brought up offerings upon them, and he proclaimed thy name continually to all the children of the earth.
  51. And now that his son Isaac is born to him, he has forsaken thee, he has made a great feast for all the inhabitants of the land, and the Lord he has forgotten.
  52. For amidst all that he has done he brought thee no offering; neither burnt offering nor peace offering, neither ox, lamb nor goat of all that he killed on the day that his son was weaned.
  53. Even from the time of his son’s birth till now, being thirty-seven years, he built no altar before thee, nor brought any offering to thee, for he saw that thou didst give what he requested before thee, and he therefore forsook thee.
  54. And the Lord said to Satan, Hast thou thus considered my servant Abraham? for there is none like him upon earth, a perfect and an upright man before me, one that fears God and avoids evil; as I live, were I to say unto him, Bring up Isaac thy son before me, he would not withhold him from me, much more if I told him to bring up a burnt offering before me from his flock or herds.
  55. And Satan answered the Lord and said, Speak then now unto Abraham as thou hast said, and thou wilt see whether he will not this day transgress and cast aside thy words.

Book of Jasher, Chapter 23:

1 At that time the word of the Lord came to Abraham, and he said unto him, Abraham, and he said, Here I am.

2 And he said to him, Take now thy son, thine only son whom thou lovest, even Isaac, and go to the land of Moriah, and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which shall be shown to thee, for there wilt thou see a cloud and the glory of the Lord.

3 And Abraham said within himself, How shall I separate my son Isaac from Sarah his mother, in order to bring him up for a burnt offering before the Lord?

4 And Abraham came into the tent, and he sat before Sarah his wife, and he spoke these words to her,

5 My son Isaac is grown up and he has not for some time studied the service of his God, now tomorrow I will go and bring him to Shem, and Eber his son, and there he will learn the ways of the Lord, for they will teach him to know the Lord as well as to know that when he prayeth continually before the Lord, he will answer him, therefore there he will know the way of serving the Lord his God.

6 And Sarah said, Thou hast spoken well, go my lord and do unto him as thou hast said, but remove him not at a great distance from me, neither let him remain there too long, for my soul is bound within his soul.

7 And Abraham said unto Sarah, My daughter, let us pray to the Lord our God that he may do good with us.

8 And Sarah took her son Isaac and he abode all that night with her, and she kissed and embraced him, and gave him instructions till morning.

9 And she said to him, O my son, how can my soul separate itself from thee? And she still kissed him and embraced him, and she gave Abraham instructions concerning him.

10 And Sarah said to Abraham, O my lord, I pray thee take heed of thy son, and place thine eyes over him, for I have no other son nor daughter but him.

11 O forsake him not. If he be hungry give him bread, and if he be thirsty give him water to drink; do not let him go on foot, neither let him sit in the sun.

12 Neither let him go by himself in the road, neither force him from whatever he may desire, but do unto him as he may say to thee.

13 And Sarah wept bitterly the whole night on account of Isaac, and she gave him instructions till morning.

14 And in the morning Sarah selected a very fine and beautiful garment from those garments which she had in the house, that Abimelech had given to her.

15 And she dressed Isaac her son therewith, and she put a turban upon his head, and she enclosed a precious stone in the top of the turban, and she gave them provision for the road, and they went forth, and Isaac went with his father Abraham, and some of their servants accompanied them to see them off the road.

16 And Sarah went out with them, and she accompanied them upon the road to see them off, and they said to her, Return to the tent.

17 And when Sarah heard the words of her son Isaac she wept bitterly, and Abraham her husband wept with her, and their son wept with them a great weeping; also those who went with them wept greatly.

18 And Sarah caught hold of her son Isaac, and she held him in her arms, and she embraced him and continued to weep with him, and Sarah said, Who knoweth if after this day I shall ever see thee again?

19 And they still wept together, Abraham, Sarah and Isaac, and all those that accompanied them on the road wept with them, and Sarah afterward turned away from her son, weeping bitterly, and all her men servants and maid servants returned with her to the tent.

20 And Abraham went with Isaac his son to bring him up as an offering before the Lord, as He had commanded him.

21 And Abraham took two of his young men with him, Ishmael the son of Hagar and Eliezer his servant, and they went together with them, and whilst they were walking in the road the young men spoke these words to themselves,

22 And Ishmael said to Eliezer, Now my father Abraham is going with Isaac to bring him up for a burnt offering to the Lord, as He commanded him.

23 Now when he returns he will give unto me all that he possesses, to inherit after him, for I am his first born.

24 And Eliezer answered Ishmael and said, Surely Abraham did cast thee away with thy mother, and swear that thou should not inherit any thing of all he possesses, and to whom will he give all that he has, with all his treasures, but unto me his servant, who has been faithful in his house, who has served him night and day, and has done all that he desired me? to me will he bequeath at his death all that he possesses.

25 And whilst Abraham was proceeding with his son Isaac along the road, Satan came and appeared to Abraham in the figure of a very aged man, humble and of contrite spirit, and he approached Abraham and said to him, Art thou silly or brutish, that thou goes to do this thing this day to thine only son?

26 For God gave thee a son in thy latter days, in thy old age, and wilt thou go and slaughter him this day because he committed no violence, and wilt thou cause the soul of thine only son to perish from the earth?

27 Dost thou not know and understand that this thing cannot be from the Lord? for the Lord cannot do unto man such evil upon earth to say to him, Go slaughter thy child.

28 And Abraham heard this and knew that it was the word of Satan who endeavored to draw him aside from the way of the Lord, but Abraham would not hearken to the voice of Satan, and Abraham rebuked him so that he went away.

29 And Satan returned and came to Isaac; and he appeared unto Isaac in the figure of a young man comely and well favored.

30 And he approached Isaac and said unto him, Dost thou not know and understand that thy old silly father bringeth thee to the slaughter this day for naught?

31 Now therefore, my son, do not listen nor attend to him, for he is a silly old man, and let not thy precious soul and beautiful figure be lost from the earth.

32 And Isaac heard this, and said unto Abraham, Hast thou heard, my father, that which this man has spoken? even thus has he spoken.

33 And Abraham answered his son Isaac and said to him, Take heed of him and do not listen to his words, nor attend to him, for he is Satan, endeavoring to draw us aside this day from the commands of God.

34 And Abraham still rebuked Satan, and Satan went from them, and seeing he could not prevail over them he hid himself from them, and he went and passed before them in the road; and he transformed himself to a large brook of water in the road, and Abraham and Isaac and his two young men reached that place, and they saw a brook large and powerful as the mighty waters.

35 And they entered the brook and passed through it, and the waters at first reached their legs.

36 And they went deeper in the brook and the waters reached up to their necks, and they were all terrified on account of the water; and whilst they were going over the brook Abraham recognized that place, and he knew that there was no water there before.

37 And Abraham said to his son Isaac, I know this place in which there was no brook nor water, now therefore it is this Satan who does all this to us, to draw us aside this day from the commands of God.

38 And Abraham rebuked him and said unto him, The Lord rebuke thee, O Satan, begone from us for we go by the commands of God.

39 And Satan was terrified at the voice of Abraham, and he went away from them, and the place again became dry land as it was at first.

40 And Abraham went with Isaac toward the place that God had told him.

41 And on the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw the place at a distance which God had told him of.

42 And a pillar of fire appeared to him that reached from the earth to heaven, and a cloud of glory upon the mountain, and the glory of the Lord was seen in the cloud.

43 And Abraham said to Isaac, My son, dost thou see in that mountain, which we perceive at a distance, that which I see upon it?

44 And Isaac answered and said unto his father, I see and lo a pillar of fire and a cloud, and the glory of the Lord is seen upon the cloud.

45 And Abraham knew that his son Isaac was accepted before the Lord for a burnt offering.

46 And Abraham said unto Eliezer and unto Ishmael his son, Do you also see that which we see upon the mountain which is at a distance?

47 And they answered and said, We see nothing more than like the other mountains of the earth. And Abraham knew that they were not accepted before the Lord to go with them, and Abraham said to them, Abide ye here with the ass whilst I and Isaac my son will go to yonder mount and worship there before the Lord and then return to you.

48 And Eliezer and Ishmael remained in that place, as Abraham had commanded.

49 And Abraham took wood for a burnt offering and placed it upon his son Isaac, and he took the fire and the knife, and they both went to that place.

50 And when they were going along Isaac said to his father, Behold, I see here the fire and wood, and where then is the lamb that is to be the burnt offering before the Lord?

51 And Abraham answered his son Isaac, saying, The Lord has made choice of thee my son, to be a perfect burnt offering instead of the lamb.

52 And Isaac said unto his father, I will do all that the Lord spoke to thee with joy and cheerfulness of heart.

53 And Abraham again said unto Isaac his son, Is there in thy heart any thought or counsel concerning this, which is not proper? tell me my son, I pray thee, O my son conceal it not from me.

54 And Isaac answered his father Abraham and said unto him, O my father, as the Lord liveth and as thy soul lives, there is nothing in my heart to cause me to deviate either to the right or to the left from the word that he has spoken to thee.

55 Neither limb nor muscle has moved or stirred at this, nor is there in my heart any thought or evil counsel concerning this.

56 But I am of joyful and cheerful heart in this matter, and I say, Blessed is the Lord who has this day chosen me to be a burnt offering before Him.

57 And Abraham greatly rejoiced at the words of Isaac, and they went on and came together to that place that the Lord had spoken of.

58 And Abraham approached to build the altar in that place, and Abraham was weeping, and Isaac took stones and mortar until they had finished building the altar.

59 And Abraham took the wood and placed it in order upon the altar which he had built.

60 And he took his son Isaac and bound him in order to place him upon the wood which was upon the altar, to slay him for a burnt offering before the Lord.

61 And Isaac said to his father, Bind me securely and then place me upon the altar lest I should turn and move, and break loose from the force of the knife upon my flesh and thereof profane the burnt offering; and Abraham did so.

62 And Isaac still said to his father, O my father, when thou shalt have slain me and burnt me for an offering, take with thee that which shall remain of my ashes to bring to Sarah my mother, and say to her, This is the sweet smelling savor of Isaac; but do not tell her this if she should sit near a well or upon any high place, lest she should cast her soul after me and die.

63 And Abraham heard the words of Isaac, and he lifted up his voice and wept when Isaac spake these words; and Abraham’s tears gushed down upon Isaac his son, and Isaac wept bitterly, and he said to his father, Hasten thou, O my father, and do with me the will of the Lord our God as He has commanded thee.

64 And the hearts of Abraham and Isaac rejoiced at this thing which the Lord had commanded them; but the eye wept bitterly whilst the heart rejoiced.

65 And Abraham bound his son Isaac, and placed him on the altar upon the wood, and Isaac stretched forth his neck upon the altar before his father, and Abraham stretched forth his hand to take the knife to slay his son as a burnt offering before the Lord.

66 At that time the angels of mercy came before the Lord and spake to him concerning Isaac, saying,

67 0 Lord, thou art a merciful and compassionate King over all that thou hast created in heaven and in earth, and thou supportest them all; give therefore ransom and redemption instead of thy servant Isaac, and pity and have compassion upon Abraham and Isaac his son, who are this day performing thy commands.

68 Hast thou seen, O Lord, how Isaac the son of Abraham thy servant is bound down to the slaughter like an animal? now therefore let thy pity be roused for them, O Lord.

69 At that time the Lord appeared unto Abraham, and called to him, from heaven, and said unto him, Lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him, for now I know that thou fearest God in performing this act, and in not withholding thy son, thine only son, from me.

70 And Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw, and behold, a ram was caught in a thicket by his horns; that was the ram which the Lord God had created in the earth in the day that he made earth and heaven.

71 For the Lord had prepared this ram from that day, to be a burnt offering instead of Isaac.

72 And this ram was advancing to Abraham when Satan caught hold of him and entangled his horns in the thicket, that he might not advance to Abraham, in order that Abraham might slay his son.

73 And Abraham, seeing the ram advancing to him and Satan withholding him, fetched him and brought him before the altar, and he loosened his son Isaac from his binding, and he put the ram in his stead, and Abraham killed the ram upon the altar, and brought it up as an offering in the place of his son Isaac.

74 And Abraham sprinkled some of the blood of the ram upon the altar, and he exclaimed and said, This is in the place of my son, and may this be considered this day as the blood of my son before the Lord.

75 And all that Abraham did on this occasion by the altar, he would exclaim and say, This is in the room of my son, and may it this day be considered before the Lord in the place of my son; and Abraham finished the whole of the service by the altar, and the service was accepted before the Lord, and was accounted as if it had been Isaac; and the Lord blessed Abraham and his seed on that day.

76 And Satan went to Sarah, and he appeared to her in the figure of an old man very humble and meek, and Abraham was yet engaged in the burnt offering before the Lord.

77 And he said unto her, Dost thou not know all the work that Abraham has made with thine only son this day? for he took Isaac and built an altar, and killed him, and brought him up as a sacrifice upon the altar, and Isaac cried and wept before his father, but he looked not at him, neither did he have compassion over him.

78 And Satan repeated these words, and he went away from her, and Sarah heard all the words of Satan, and she imagined him to be an old man from amongst the sons of men who had been with her son, and had come and told her these things.

79 And Sarah lifted up her voice and wept and cried out bitterly on account of her son; and she threw herself upon the ground and she cast dust upon her head, and she said, O my son, Isaac my son, O that I had this day died instead of thee. And she continued to weep and said, It grieves me for thee, O my son, my son Isaac, O that I had died this day in thy stead.

80 And she still continued to weep, and said, It grieves me for thee after that I have reared thee and have brought thee up; now my joy is turned into mourning over thee, I that had a longing for thee, and cried and prayed to God till I bare thee at ninety years old; and now hast thou served this day for the knife and the fire, to be made an offering.

81 But I console myself with thee, my son, in its being the word of the Lord, for thou didst perform the command of thy God; for who can transgress the word of our God, in whose hands is the soul of every living creature?

82 Thou art just, O Lord our God, for all thy works are good and righteous; for I also am rejoiced with thy word which thou didst command, and whilst mine eye weepeth bitterly my heart rejoiceth.

83 And Sarah laid her head upon the bosom of one of her handmaids, and she became as still as a stone.

84 She afterward rose up and went about making inquiries till she came to Hebron, and she inquired of all those whom she met walking in the road, and no one could tell her what had happened to her son.

85 And she came with her maid servants and men servants to Kireath-arba, which is Hebron, and she asked concerning her Son, and she remained there while she sent some of her servants to seek where Abraham had gone with Isaac; they went to seek him in the house of Shem and Eber, and they could not find him, and they sought throughout the land and he was not there.

86 And behold, Satan came to Sarah in the shape of an old man, and he came and stood before her, and he said unto her, I spoke falsely unto thee, for Abraham did not kill his son and he is not dead; and when she heard the word her joy was so exceedingly violent on account of her son, that her soul went out through joy; she died and was gathered to her people.

87 And when Abraham had finished his service he returned with his son Isaac to his young men, and they rose up and went together to Beersheba, and they came home.

88 And Abraham sought for Sarah, and could not find her, and he made inquiries concerning her, and they said unto him, She went as far as Hebron to seek you both where you had gone, for thus was she informed.

89 And Abraham and Isaac went to her to Hebron, and when they found that she was dead they lifted up their voices and wept bitterly over her; and Isaac fell upon his mother’s face and wept over her, and he said, O my mother, my mother, how hast thou left me, and where hast thou gone? O how, how hast thou left me!

90 And Abraham and Isaac wept greatly and all their servants wept with them on account of Sarah, and they mourned over her a great and heavy mourning.

Book of Jasher, Chapter 24 (in small part)

1 And the life of Sarah was one hundred and twenty-seven years, and Sarah died; and Abraham rose up from before his dead to seek a burial place to bury his wife Sarah; and he went and spoke to the children of Heth, the inhabitants of the land, saying, 2 I am a stranger and a sojourner with you in your land; give me a possession of a burial place in your land, that I may bury my dead from before me.

18 At that time Abraham rose up with all his servants, and they went and returned homeward to Beersheba, and Abraham and all his servants remained in Beersheba.

27 And Nahor the son of Terah, brother to Abraham, died in those days in the fortieth year of the life of Isaac, and all the days of Nahor were one hundred and seventy-two years and he died and was buried in Haran.

30 And Abraham said to him, Behold I am old, I do not know the day of my death; for I am advanced in days; now therefore rise up, go forth and do not take a wife for my son from this place and from this land, from the daughters of the Canaanites amongst whom we dwell.

31 But go to my land and to my birthplace, and take from thence a wife for my son, and the Lord God of Heaven and earth who took me from my father’s house and brought me to this place, and said unto me, To thy seed will I give this land for an inheritance forever, he will send his angel before thee and prosper thy way, that thou mayest obtain a wife for my son from my family and from my father’s house.

44 And Isaac took Rebecca and she became his wife, and he brought her into the tent.

45 And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebecca, the daughter of his uncle Bethuel, for a wife.

https://sacred-texts.com/chr/apo/jasher/21.htm

https://sacred-texts.com/chr/apo/jasher/22.htm

https://www.ccel.org/a/anonymous/jasher/22.htm

https://sacred-texts.com/chr/apo/jasher/23.htm

https://sacred-texts.com/chr/apo/jasher/24.htm

Islam: changes the account to Ismael – Eid-al-Adha

The Koran/Qur’an account comes over 1200 years after the Book of Jasher, and over 2300 years after the oral and written accounts in Genesis.  BUT Moreover, the account IS NOT in the Qur’an.

IslamReligion.com states, “The twelfth month of the Islamic calendar is called Dhul Hijjah.  It is the month that contains one of the greatest pillars of Islam – Hajj or the major pilgrimage.  It also contains one of only two Islamic reoccurring festivals, Eid ul Adha.  These two special occasions, the Hajj and Eid ul Adha, are inextricably linked by one special man, Prophet Ibrahim, known in Jewish and Christian traditions as Prophet Abraham. Making the pilgrimage is often called following in the footsteps of Ibrahim.  This is due to the fact that the rituals involved in the pilgrimage replicate many of the events in Prophet Ibrahim’s life.  Eid ul Adha commemorates a specific trial in the life of Ibrahim.  He was commanded by God to sacrifice, his son Ishmael.  Eid ul Adha occurs on the 10th day of Dhul Hijjah, the day on which most of the Hajj rites have been performed and the pilgrims slaughter an animal to honour Prophet Ibrahim’s obedience to God.

“Surely Ibrahim was an example, obedient to God, by nature upright, and he was not of the polytheists.  He was grateful for Our bounties.  We chose him and guided him unto a right path.  We gave him good in this world, and in the next he will most surely be among the righteous.” (Quran 16:120-121)

In a divinely inspired dream, Ibrahim saw himself sacrificing his son Ishmael.  All members of Ibrahim’s family demonstrated complete trust in God, therefore Ibrahim revealed the dream to Ishmael.  He readily agreed that his father must carry out the command of God.  Together they went to the place of sacrifice and offered Ishmael’s life to God.  Ibrahim prepared to sacrifice his beloved son.  At this point the shaytaan (satan) tempted Ibrahim trying to make him disobey God, but Ibrahim resisted and drove the shaytaan away.  Ibrahim looked down at his son for what he believed was the last time but as the blade came close to Ishmael’s neck God stayed his hand and revealed that there was no need for Ibrahim to continue.  His sacrifice had already been fulfilled.

Giving up something big for the sake of God, such as the life of your child, must seem like a huge and unimaginable sacrifice.  Today even going without something small, such as a cup of coffee, to donate the money to charity seems like a large sacrifice.  Try to imagine  how Ibrahim must have felt as he held the blade above his child’s neck.  In the last moment he was relieved of his duty to follow God’s commands.  Having complete trust in God, knowing with certainty that God knows and wants what is best for us is often difficult, but it should not be.

“…And whosoever fears God and keeps his duty to Him, He will make a way for him to get out (from every difficulty).  And He will provide him from (sources) he never could imagine….” (Quran 65:2-3)

God replaced Ishmael with a sheep and it is for this reason that Muslims sacrifice an animal on the celebration of Eid ul Adha; however it is more than a celebration, it is a reminder.  We are reminded of our own submission to the will of God.  Those Muslim’s who are not making the pilgrimage and who can afford it sacrifice an animal in remembrance of Prophet Ibrahim’s test.

“Their meat will not reach Allah, nor will their blood, but what reaches Him is piety from you….” (Quran 22:37)

The act of animal sacrifice is often misunderstood.  God has no need for the blood or the meat; in fact God has no need for any of our acts of worship.  However for our own benefit God commands us to turn to Him and obey Him.  God looks for our piety, our goodness and our charity.  The animal sacrificed is usually a sheep, a goat or a cow…”

https://www.islamreligion.com/articles/4895/what-is-eid-ul-adha/

As stated by Quranaloneislam.net, “The feasts and prayers of Eid al-Fitr (marking the end of Ramadan) and Eid al-Adha (the feast of sacrifice) are not mentioned in the Quran fully detailed (7 :52, 6 :114, 10 :37) and originate from hadiths, which the Quran condemns and forbids by name (7 :185, 12 :111, 31 :6, 45 :6, 77 :50).

They contradict the teachings of the Quran at several levels… Eid al-Adha (عيد الأضحى = Feast of Sacrifice) is the prayer and feast associated with the completion of the hajj according to Sunni and Shia dates (8th to 12th of dhul hijjah, the 12th lunar month). It is celebrated worldwide on the 10th day of Dhul Hijjah between sunrise and sunset. It is considered the holiest of the two Eid celebrations, and commemorates Abraham’s acceptance to sacrifice his son Ishmael, symbolizing the ultimate act of submission to God’s command…’

“As for the ‘Eid al-Adha, the fact that the Quran decrees four sacred lunar months to perform the hajj (2:197, 9:2,-3, 9:32-37) makes it strictly impossible to celebrate the end of the hajj after only five days (!) and the 10th of Dhul Hijjah falls roughly in the middle of the month, not at the endThis is what you call a problem that cannot be solved. But the truth is: Most people do not really care about the Quran, or if they claim they do, it is just lip service. The overwhelming majority of people who read this article will prefer to continue to follow blindly what their parents or imams taught them and could not care less if it contradicts the laws of the Holy Quran.”

https://www.quranaloneislam.net/eid-al-fitr-and-eid-al-adha

NO – you are only right in part, the truth is that the overwhelming majority will continue to follow blindly what their parents, professors and religious leaders taught/teach them and could not care less or will not search to see if their Muslim, Islam, Hebrew, Christian denominations contradict the truth in the Holy Scriptures, which include how God “spoke in time past …by the prophets (and) …in these lasts days …by His Son (Hebrews 1:1-2)” Jesus Christ.

The Hadith are traditions that are said to come from the sayings of Muhammad.  They are less creditable than the Jewish Midrash (commentary) from the Talmud or in the Sefer ha-aggadah (Book of Legends).

Knowing that the Qur’an does not contain the account or accurate account of the binding, what else is taken for Judeo-Christian tradition and what else is inaccurate?

NOTE: Muslim’s say that Ishmael was the first son, but Isaac was called the ‘only’ son, because he was the only son of Sarah and the of the promise that God made to Abraham, that Sarai would be ‘Sarah, the mother of nations (Gen. 17:16)’ and would bear a son and he would be of whom God said, ‘My covenant will I establish with Isaac… (Gen. 17:19).” Though the Lord did also bless Ismael (Gen. 17:20).

See the source image

(5) Five Pillars of Islam is taken from the Jews and Christians

What are the ‘five pillars’ of Islam?  The religion of Islam, meaning ‘to submit to God’ (the noblest of all the duties of mankind), to the Muslim (from ‘aslama’ means ‘submitter’ – implied to God), who is a follower of Muhammad’s teachings, is said to be based on the arkan (‘pillars’ or ‘corners’) – specifically the Five Pillars.  Thus, the ‘Arkan al-Islam,’ also called the ‘arkan al-din (‘pillars of religion’).’

According to the Madinah Islamic University, ‘Arkan al Islam,’ “…the Fundamental Integrals of Islam as mentioned to us in the famous Hadith: Islam has been based on five integrals, foundations.”  A hadith is a narration from Muhammad, and they claim one of the most famous was the “Hadith of the angel Jibril (Gabriel),’ who Muslim claim spoke to Muhammad.  Muslims also say that tens of thousands of followers of Muhammad had, by requirement and desire, memorized the Qur’an/Koran in its entirety.

The Five Pillars are: Shahada (testimony/profession of creed or faith), Salat (prayer), Zakat (alms or compulsory charity), Sawm (fasting), Hajj (pilgrimage).   Words from Muhammad, according to Mecca.net

“Islam is that you testify that there is none worthy of worship (in truth) but Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, you establish the prayer, you pay the Zakah, you fast in Ramadan, and you perform pilgrimage to the House (of Allah) if you have the capability.” [Muslim]

“Islam is built upon five; to testify that there is none worthy of worship (in truth) but Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, and to establish the prayer, to pay Zakah, to make pilgrimage and fast in Ramadan.” [Muslim]

Hajj Information

A little Quran first: There are 114 surahs in the Quran (86 – Meccan; 28 – Medinan).  Surah simply means chapter.  A principle verse in Quran, as taught before by all the Jewish/Hebrew prophets and apostles/disciples of Jesus Christ is “We believe in Allah (God) and the Last Day (Surah 2:8).”  According to the Quran, “…those who were Jews or Christians… (‘before Prophet Muhammad’) …who believed in Allah (God) and the Last Day and did righteousness – will have their reward with their Lord… (Surah 2:62).”  Note that the Jewish and Christian Bibles taught of belief in the One true God, the Last Day of Judgment (‘the Day of Recompense’ – Surah 1:4), and of repentance and righteousness for centuries before the Quran.

John the apostle and prophet of Revelation and proclaimer of the Gospel of Jesus Christ wrote many verses on the “resurrection on the last day (John 11:24),” the “resurrection of life and …of judgment (John 5:28-29; Revelation 20:1-15), of which the prophet Daniel spoke of about 1,200 years before the Quran, saying, “And at that time… of trouble (speaking of the Great Tribulation before the return of Christ – see Matthew 24:29-30), such as never was since… many of them that sleep in the dust (dead) shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt (Dan. 12:1-2).”

And the Quran, after again speaking much about Moses and then of “the Day of Resurrection… (and) punishment (Surah 2:85),” and the ‘children of Israel,’ says, “and we did certainly give Moses the Torah and followed up after him with massagers.  We gave Jesus, the son of Mary… with the Pure Spirit… (2:87).”  The chapter ends claiming “Gabriel… brought the Qur’an down upon your heart, Muhammad, by permission of Allah, confirming… good tidings for the believers (2:97).”  Note: The Holy Bible: “I am Gabriel (Luke 1:19)… the angel said, “I bring you good tidings… unto you is born in the City of David a Savior, Christ the Lord (Luke 2:10-11).”

The Quran says, the ‘Lord said to the angels (Surah 2:30),’ then says ‘He’ – meaning God (2:33), then says, ‘We said to the angels (2:34),’ and ‘We said (to) Adam… (2:35),’ and above ‘we …gave Moses (2:53).’ Who is we but Yahweh-Elohim – as in Genesis 1:1 – as in Jesus Christ and God the Father – (‘let us make man’  – Gen. 1:26), as in the ‘In the beginning was the Word was with God and the Word was God (John 1:1).’

So then the Quran in the same chapter introduces another way, “The Jews say, ‘the Christians have nothing (true) to stand on,’ and the Christians say, ‘the Jews have nothing to stand on,’ although they both recite the Scripture.  The polytheists speak the same as their words.  But Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that over which they used to differ.  And who are more unjust than those who prevent the name of Allah from being mentioned in His mosques and strive toward their destruction… (2:113-114).”

The writer of this Quran can not say these things unless they know something of Judaism and Christianity, and equally important, that first mosques were built, which logically could not have been before the supposed ‘revelation’ from Gabriel to Muhammad, but years after his death.  But the writer of the Quran continues and says, “We have sent you, O Muhammad, with the truth as a bringer of good tidings… (Surah 2:119);” and on one hand calls Jesus a prophet, and on the other blasphemes Christ, by replacing the Son of God with Muhammad as the bearer of ‘truth’ and ‘bringer of good tidings.’

The Quran writer(s) then further separates the Muslim religion and salvation away from Judaism or Christianity, saying “never will the Jews or the Christians approve of you until you follow their religion.  Say, ‘Indeed, the guidance of Allah (God) is the only guidance.’  If you were to follow their desires after what has come to you of knowledge, you would have against Allah no protector or helper.  Those to whom We have given the Book recite its true recital… (2:120-121).”

The writer adds “We charged Abraham and Ishmael, ‘Purify My House for those who perform Tawaf (‘going about,’ pilgrimage) and those who are staying for worship and those who bow and prostrate (in prayer).” 2:125  Thus, these Arabs make the linage go through their father Ishmael, rather than the linage of Isaac.  Muhammad claims to be directly in the linage of Ishmael; nevertheless, Jesus is from the linage of Abraham, Isaac and David.   Here they speak of prayer and the form of it.

Also, in this same Surah the writer teaches about ‘Fasting (2:184)’ and “the month of Ramadhan in which was revealed the Qur’an… (2:185).  Then the unspoken pillar ‘Six’ of Islam – Jihad (struggle against): “Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you but do transgress.  Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors.  And kill them wherever you overtake them and expel them from wherever they have expelled you, and fitnah (sedition; trial of testing) is worse than killing.  And do not fight them at al-Masjid al-Haram until they fight you there. But if they fight you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers… Fight them until there is no more fitnah and until worship is acknowledged to be for Allah.  But if they cease, then there is to be no aggression except against the oppressors… (Surah 2:190-193).”

And Surah 2 includes, ‘complete the Hajj and ‘umrah for Allah.  But if you are prevented, then offer what can be obtained with ease of sacrificial animals… And whoever cannot find or afford such an animal then a fast of three days during Hajj and of seven when you returned home.  Those are ten complete… (2:196).”

Then, in the next Surah (chapter) the writer says God, give “…the Book in truth, confirming what was before it. And He revealed the Torah and the Gospel… And he revealed the Qur’an… (3:3-4).”  Muslim scholars say that Muhammad was given the Koran/Qur’an by the angel Gabriel over a period of 22 years, beginning about 610.

Now, before discussing the five pillars, see more separation from the Truth of the Holy Scriptures by the writer(s) of the Quran, saying, “Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was one inclining toward truth, a Muslim (submitting to Allah). And he was not of the polytheists… O people of the Scripture, why do you confuse the truth with falsehood… and do not trust except those who follow your religion… We have believed in Allah and in what was revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Ismael, Isaac, Jacob and the Descendants, and in what was given to Moses and Jesus and to the prophets from their Lord.  We make no distinction between any of them, and we are Muslims to Him.  And whoever desires other than Islam as religion – never will it be accepted from him, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers… (Surah 3:67, 71, 73, 84,85).”

First, of course Abraham was not a polytheist; and he was born before God sent Jesus to be born of the virgin Mary.  However, Abraham knew of the resurrection to come and ‘waited for the city which has foundations, whose builder and maker is God (Heb. 11:10).’  It is likely, that Abraham knew of the ‘seed,’ the ‘Messiah,’ and thus, Christ – though not as Jesus.

Second, as to polytheists or those that worship more than the one God.  The heart of the Jewish religion is the One true God, and even their phylacteries carry this truth, containing the verse: “Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the Lord is one.  Love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength… (Deut. 6:4-5).”

Third, as to the Christians… many speak of a Trinity… speaking of the Godhead.  And it is true some misunderstand and consider the Holy Spirit as a separate God personally or personally of the Godhead, when of course the Spirit, although “the Advocate and comforter” is the very Spirit of God which is sent by Christ from the Father (John 14:26, 15:26).  Moreover, no where in the Holy Scriptures is the Holy Spirit worshiped, only Father God and our Lord Jesus Christ: “Him who sits on the throne and to the Lamb (Rev.5:13).”   And Christ directs all to the Father, “the Scriptures say, ‘You must worship the Lord your God and serve only Him.”  Thus, the Christian Nicene Creed states, “I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth…”

https://www.ccel.org/creeds/nicene.creed.html

Fourth, in the first 3 verses of the Qur’an (Koran) the Lord God (‘Allah’) is called ‘Merciful.’  Why and where does this come from?  About 2,000 years before Muhammad, in the heart of the Jewish Exodus migration from Egypt, through the wilderness and into Canaan (and Palestine) – ‘the Promised Land (Gen. 13:15; 15:18-21; 17:8; Lev. 14:34)’ – the Lord God, on Mount Sinai (where the Lord gave Moses the Commandments), proclaimed to Moses His name (the longest known Name of God), in part: “The Lord God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering and abounding in goodness and truth, keeping mercy for thousands (myriads), forgiving iniquity, transgression and sin, by no means clearing the guilty…”

And about 1,500 years before Muhammad, King David, knew and sang about the Mercy of the Lord God, saying in one Psalm, “The Lord is gracious and full of compassion, slow to anger and great in mercy (Psalm 145:8-9).”  And about 600 years before Muhammad, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, came filled with the Spirit of God, of mercy, “the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth (John 1:14).”   And what did He teach, “be merciful, just as your Father (God in heaven) also is merciful (Luke 6:36);” for “blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy (Matthew 5:7).”

And Christ spoke this in His longest and possibly most famous Sermon on the Mount.  It was a core teaching of the Beatitudes – eight blessings declared by Jesus, recorded in the Gospel of Matthew, taught by His disciples, and by the early church fathers and the Catholic and Orthodox Churches to most of the former Roman Empire and the then (610 AD) current Byzantine Empire during the years of Muhammad.  By this time Christianity was the national religion (by Emperor Theodosius I in 380), having been protected by Emperor Constantine about 300 years earlier in 313.

Image result for byzantine empire 600 ad

Image result for saudi arabia 600 ad

Many sources, say that Muhammad’s uncle, Abu Talib, took him to Syria when he was a young boy.  Nevertheless, Abu Talib taught and or exposed Muhammad to Christian and Jewish teachings.  Of course, Abu and Muhammad learned these doctrines from their travels and contacts with merchants, priests and others.  And it was just as likely the caliphs learned these things through conquest.

Image result for spread of christianity by 650 ad

Image result for spread of christianity by 650 ad

These doctrines were “elementary teachings about Christ… repentance… faith in God… the resurrection of the dead and eternal judgment (Hebrew 6:1-2).”

Muhammad (much as Genghis Khan would do with the Mongols) united Arab tribes (which were both nomadic and sedentary as the Mongols) and soon after they would conquer much of the Byzantine Empire.  They would both encounter the Christians and force them to convert to Islam – the new religion of the Muslims.  Nevertheless, before the Arabs would fight and killed Christians, and before they would make slaves in Africa, they killed their own in Mecca and spared the rest that converted to Islam.

Many of their mosques were not original buildings, but often taken churches and temples.  The most famous perhaps is the Hagia Sophia (Church of Holy Wisdom).  It was built in Constantinople (which was Byzantium and is now Istanbul, Turkey) about 360 as a great Christian Church and continued construction for centuries.  It was converted into a mosque about 1453, when Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Arab Turks (now a museum).   In the same manner, from about 630s AD, as the Muslim Arabs conquered towns and cities and lands they would re-educated the people, take over their governments, schools and hospitals, and convert their churches into the newly styled mosques.  One of the oldest examples is the Fustat mosque in old Cairo, Egypt – built about 641 AD.   Nevertheless, historians and archeologists find that “the first minarets/towers were erected at the four corners of the mosque at Madina between 707 and 709.  Their function and symbolic meaning were for the exclusive perception of Muslims.  The minaret, then, spread slowly to other regions, very rarely before the ninth century, as in the mosques of Samarra… (Islamic Art and Architecture 650-1250; Oleg Grabar, Yale Press; 2003; p. 21).

NOW like the other doctrines of Judaism and Christianity the Five Pillars are converted: Shahada (testimony/profession of creed or faith), Salat (prayer), Zakat (alms or compulsory charity), Sawm (fasting), Hajj (pilgrimage).

Shahada: Profession of Faith or Creed

The 622 mithaq-i-Medina or Covenant of Medina (Yathrib) stated that the Jews had their profession of faith and the Muslims theirs; but at that time there were twice as many Jews in Medina as Muslims.  It stated, “No Jew will be wronged for being a Jew… The Jews have their religion.  This will also apply to their freedmen.  The exception will be those who act unjustly and sinfully… Those in alliance with the Jews will be given the same treatment as the Jews.  No tribe shall go to war except with the permission of Muhammed…”

https://www.constitution.org/cons/medina/con_medina.htm

The Jews where known by their looks, styles, culture and religion.  As to the Christians, even more profession of faith and numerous creeds before the time of Muhammad.   Philip Schaff wrote 3 volumes on Christian Creeds (The Creeds of Christendom… 1877).

https://archive.org/details/creedsofchriste03scha/page/n4

https://www.creeds.net/

But let us just look at a few verses by Christ and the apostle Paul.  Jesus said, “Whoever shall confess Me before men (others), I will also confess before My Father which is in heaven. But whosoever shall deny Me (as the Son of God – John 6:66) before men, those I will also deny before My Father which is in heaven (Matthew 10:32-33).”  Paul said, “If you shall confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus and shall believe in your heart that God has raised Him from the dead, you shall be saved (Romans 10:9).”  Jesus said to His apostles (through promise is also to all generations that receive Christ as their Lord – Acts 2:38-39), “…you shall receive power, after the Holy Ghost/Spirit comes upon you, and you shall be witnesses unto Me in Jerusalem, Judaea… and to the ends of the earth (Acts 1:8).”

Salat: Prayer

The traditional/orthodox Jew and the true Christian worshiper of the Most High God, is a person of prayer.  Additionally, their posture was often on their knees.   More than 2,500 years before Muhammad or any Muslim, Job ‘was blameless and upright, one who feared God and shunned evil (Job chapter 1);’ and he did “fall to the ground and worship God,” even said, “Though He slay me, I will trust Him… He is my salvation (Job 13:15).”  Abraham interceded in pray for Lot, Sodom, his sons and his people.  And Moses “bowed his head toward the earth, and worshipped God (Exo. 34:8)” and prayed.    And likewise Joshua “fell on his face and worshiped (Joshua 5:14);” and David prayed, often with lifted hands or bowing, but with “the freewill offerings of (his) mouth,” prayed and gave “thanks,” even “seven times a day (he) praised (Psalm 119)” God.   The congregation of the Jews – “all the assembly of Israel, “Blessed the Lord…,” even as Solomon was “kneeling on his knees with his hands toward heaven… (1 Kings 8),” praying to God.  And of course, the prophet Daniel, even before the Syrians (Chaldeans), “with his windows open toward Jerusalem, he knelt down on his knees three times a day and gave thanks to God, as was his custom (Dan. 6:10-),’ and blessed he the name of God.

According to MyJewishLearning.com, ‘In traditional Jewish practice, the daily tefillot or prayers are divided into three separate services: shacharit (morning), mincha (afternoon) and maariv (evening).  By the Talmudic period, the institution of praying three times a day was an assumed part of Jewish life.”

https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/shaharit-minhah-and-maariv/

https://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/682091/jewish/The-Three-Daily-Prayers.htm

Jesus Christ, the Son of God was often in Prayer.  In His famous Sermon to His disciples He taught them “when you Pray…  you should pray: ‘Our Father in heaven, holy is your name… (Matthew 6:7-13).”  Of course all the disciples of Christ prayed, and even to this very day and until the return of our Lord Jesus Christ, many will pray as the Catholics do – the ‘Our Father,’ but more so all that are truly Jews and Christians, pray to God.  This was taught centuries before Muhammad and Islam was born.

ISLAM: It was from these things that the Muslims learned to bow (though a natural posture when in reverence before Almighty God) and pray five times a day.  Paul said, ‘pray without ceases’ – speaking of the way of life and communication with God, in the name of our Advocate – our Lord Jesus Christ. As to the “takbir” – raising hands – this was a Jewish custom or instinct, also practiced and taught by the disciples of Christ; as was bowing.

And as to the “ruku” and “sujud” – saying, “glory be to God,” and “glory be to God, the highest,” not only did the Jews say this to God (and now the Christians, even in our songs), but they, the shepherds, wise men and angels all said it to both God and the Messiah (Christ Jesus), “Glory to God in the highest and on earth peace to men (Luke 2:14),” “Hosanna to the Son of David… Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LORD (John 12:12-),” “worthy is the Lamb… to receive …honor and glory… (Rev. 5:12).”  All again these things were said and taught centuries before Islam ever existed.

Zakat: Alms, offerings and compulsory charity

The Jews, according to the laws of Moses given by the Lord God more than 2,000 before the existence of Islam, had a compulsory tithe for those that could give it and another meal or animal sacrifice for those who could not.   Thought the Jewish tithe was ten percent (10%; Deut. 12; 2 Chron. 31:4) and the Muslims is 2.5%.   Likewise, the Muslims follow Hebrew (Jewish) tradition in giving from agricultural goods and livestock, as well as precious metals from which the Jews give a freewill offering (Exodus 35:29; 1 Chron. 29:9-).  Additionally, Abraham, the father of Jacob – who is called Israel – gave a ten to the High priest of God – Melchizedek (Gen. 14:20).

The Jews had burnt offerings, tithes, special gifts and freewill offerings (Deuteronomy 12:6). Both the Jews and Christians knew that the Lord God takes “no pleasure in burnt offerings and sin offerings (Heb. 10:6; 1 Sam. 15:22; 1 Isa. 1:11),” and that the blood of bulls and goats was required every year never possible to take away sins; thus, the Jews looked for the Messiah.

But it was the “offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all (Heb. 10:10)” – “the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world (John 1:36):” That is for those that believe that repent from their willful sins (Matt. 4:17; Heb. 10:26), confess and believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, who was crucified and resurrected to from the dead and has ascended to heaven from which He will return on the Last Day to judge the living and the dead.

The Christians were taught by Christ and the apostles that Jesus is the only required sacrifice; but they also give.  We are told to “bear one each other’s burdens and fulfill the law of Christ (Gal. 6:2).”  We are allowed and asked to tithe, but it is to be of freewill and is not compulsory.  Paul says, “Remember: Whoever sows sparingly will also reap sparingly, and whoever gives generously will receive generously; each of you should give what you have decided in your heart to give, not reluctantly or under compulsion, for God loves a cheerful giver (2 Cor. 9:6-7).”

The apostles also taught as Moses, that said to the Jews – because it is from the same Spirit of God – “Give as you are able, according as the Lord has blessed you (Deut. 16:17).”  They taught as Christ, “give and it will be given to you… in like measure (Luke 6:38).”  And though, “God is able to bless you abundantly (2 Cor. 9:8),” we give because of love and to help those in need; and especially care for our brethren.

Sawm: Fasting

The Muslim fast, is primarily a 30-day fast during Ramadan (the 9th month of the Islamic calendar).  Some say there are three levels: fasting from food and drink, abstaining from sins, and from bad thoughts.  According to the Muslim fast during their ‘holy month,’ they can not let any food or drink pass through their lips during daylight hours.  Although, they allow the fast to be broken for medical reasons; and can be made up at a later date, or substituted by paying ‘fidyah,’ a donation of food or money.

However, the Jews fasted 2,000 years before the Muslims (2 Sam. 1:12, Dan. 10:3; Joel 2:12; Luke 2:37).  And the Christians 600 years before Islam were taught to fast (Acts 13:2; 14:23).   According to the Laws of Moses, the Jews were required to fast on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16:29-30; Num. 29:7).  And of course, fasting was accompanied by prayer.  It was in part a sign of repentance for this occasion.

However, both Jews and Christians fasted at various times, and many ate or drank nothing during their fasts.  I myself have fasted twice 3 days (72 hours) with no food or water (when I was in my 30s), and numerous times 24 hours.    Esther records a three day fast, told “Not to eat or drink for three days, night or day (Esther 4:16).”   The Jews fasted by custom, some “twice a week and gave a tithe of all (Luke 18:12).”

The most miraculous fast were Moses and Jesus – 40 days /without eating bread or drinking water (Exo. 34:28; Luke 4:2), but Moses lived 120 years and was appointed by God, and of course, Christ is the Son of God.  David fasted often, and even at least once for 7 days (2 Sam. 12:16-18).

Jesus said, “When you fast, do not look somber as the hypocrites do… but when you fast, put oil on your head and wash your face, so that it will not be obvious to others… but only to your Father (in heaven), Who is unseen… (Matt. 6:16-18).”   Fasting is a sacrifice and an offering and a separation for the temporal and fleshly world, drawing nearer to God, with prayer and often a specific request, and acknowledgement of our reliance on Him.  As Christ said, “man shall not live by bread alone (Matt. 4:4).”

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Mecca (1850) with Kaaba in center

Hajj: Pilgrimage

All Muslims who are able are required to make a pilgrimage to the ‘holy sites’ in Mecca, their holiest city, at least once in their life.  Their pilgrimage is to Kaaba, which they walk around counterclockwise seven times, typically during their 12th month – Dhu al-Hijjah.  Muslims call it their sacred month, during which is the Festival of the Sacrifice.   The Kaaba is the Cube in which contains the Black Stone (Al-Hajar Al-Aswad), said to contain the footprint of Abraham.  It is mentioned in the Quran.

It was said to be brought by Gabriel the Archangel.   It is the ‘corner’ of the Arab world, and to the Muslim – the center of the world.  Islam teaches that both Abraham and Ismail placed stones there.   It used to be opened twice a week for anyone, but due to the number of Muslims on pilgrimage, it is now only opened twice a year to special dignitaries and exclusive (those that give the best gifts – a lot of money) guests ONLY.   According to Muhammad, 70,000 angels pray daily in heaven above it.   This was the first pilgrimage of Islam, by Muhammad and his followers in c. 628.

http://mecca.net/

http://mecca.net/hajj-information/

https://memim.com/kaaba.html

Again 2,000 years before Muhammad, Joshua and the Israelites marched 7 times around Jericho (Joshua chapter 6; Jericho is about 15 miles northeast of Jerusalem).  Additionally, not only did the Jews have an annual pilgrimage to Jerusalem, they had three feasts associated with it: the Passover, the Feast of Weeks and the Feast of Tabernacles.  “Three times a year – on the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Passover), on the Feast of Weeks and on the Feast of Booths (Tabernacles) – all your males shall appear before the LORD your God in the place that He will choose.  They shall no appear before the LORD empty-handed (Deut. 16:16).”  “The tenth day of the seventh (Jewish) month is the Day of Atonement.  Hold a sacred assembly and deny yourselves (Lev. 23:26).”  Also see Exodus 23.

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Jesus when to Jerusalem for the Passover and the associated Feasts (John 2:13; 10:22).  And Joseph and May, like many Jews, made it every year they could (Luke 2:41).  However, after Jesus Christ was crucified as the Lamb of God and Son of God, and was resurrected, there is no longer a need for the Passover journey and to go to Jerusalem for an offering.

We can make offers any where in the world, in the name of the Lord – that is giving charity and helping others according to the way and law of Christ (Gal. 6:2).  Before Christ ascended into to heaven, He commanded His disciple (not to pilgrimage to Jerusalem), but “Go into all the world and preach the gospel to all creation (Mark 16:15).”  To “go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit… (Matt. 28:19).”  And to His disciple He said, “you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria and to the ends of the earth (Acts 1:7).”

(6) Jerusalem – not in the Qur’an

It is interesting the Muslims say that Jerusalem is their third-holiest city, that they have the Dome of the Rock and more so prevent the Jews at this time from building the Third Temple on the holy mountain, on which the Western Wall is, however, Jerusalem is not mentioned in the Koran.  Also, Muhammad did not go to Jerusalem, but Jesus and most or all of the Biblical prophets did.  The Muslims are said to called Jerusalem ‘al-Quds’ – the Holy One. But according to historians that reference did not come until at least 200 years after the death of Mohammad.

https://www.fozmuseum.com/explore-foz/jerusalem-city-many-names/

Jerusalem (then Ursalim) was founded at least 3,500 years ago.  And is said to have been Rusalim or another very ancient city under Egypt (4,000 years old).  It was called the City of Jebus (Judges 19:10), and King David purchased it (though it was promised to the Jews, to Abraham).  Thus, it became the “City of David.”  Its Mount is called Zion (1 Kings 8:1).  It was also called Shalem (Shalom; Genesis 14:18; Psalms 76:2).  The Romans called it Aelia Capitolina.  It is called Yerushalayim.  Jerusalem is first mentioned in the Book of Joshua (Joshua 10:1).   Moreover, Yerushalayim is were Abraham offered Isaac (Gen. 22).

One comparison makes this point most clearly: Jerusalem appears in the Jewish Bible 669 times and Zion (which usually means Jerusalem, sometimes the Land of Israel) 154 times, or 823 times in all. The Christian New Testament mentions Jerusalem 154 times and Zion 7 times. In contrast, the Jerusalem Post columnist Moshe Kohn noted, Jerusalem and Zion appear as frequently in the Qur’an “as they do in the Hindu Bhagavad-Gita, the Taoist Tao-Te Ching, the Buddhist Dhamapada and the Zoroastrian Zend Avesta”—which is to say, not once.

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