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History of Darwins & Arguments against Evolution

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HISTORY OF DARWINS

and ARGUMENTS AGAINST EVOLUTION

CHAPTER ONE: DARWINS

             Erasmus Darwin was educated at the University of Edinburgh Medical School and became a physician in 1756.  He married Mary Howard and had five children; then after her death, had two children with his governess, Mary Parker, before marrying Elizabeth Pole and having seven more children.  It is said he turned down the job of being physician to King George III.   Nevertheless, Erasmus did form the Lichfield Botanical Society with 3 members; and wrote several books, including Zoonomia.  This work was published in 1818 about 16 years after his death.

Erasmus wrote in Zoonomia,  “Would it be too bold to imagine, that in the great length of time, since the earth began to exist, perhaps millions of ages before the commencement of the history of mankind, would it be too bold to imagine, that all warm-blooded animals have arisen from one living filament, which THE GREAT FIRST CAUSE endued with animality, with the power of acquiring new parts, attended with new propensities, directed by irritations, sensations, volitions, and associations; and thus possessing the faculty of continuing to improve by its own inherent activity, and of delivering down those improvements by generation to its posterity, world without end!”

It is interesting that Erasmus uses two common phrases to try and give creditability to his theory.   He uses Plato’s ‘First Cause,’ instead of the God of Abraham.  And he says, ‘world without end,’ used in various prayers and Christian doxology: ‘in saecula saeculorum,’ ‘ages of ages,’ or ‘forever,’ but often stated in English, ‘world without end.’   Doxology: “Glory, to the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.  As it was in the beginning, is now and ever shall be, world without end.  Amen.”  But Erasmus Darwin did not care for the Genesis account, or proper theology, rather for imagined theories.  He disposes of the Creation account and replaces it with some ‘living filament.’  Filament: a fiber like substance in animal or plant structures; as in protein filaments give shape to cells and power movement.

In 1766, Robert Waring Darwin was born to Erasmus.  He was a wealthy medical doctor and financier.  Robert made some notable discoveries concerning eye movement.  In 1809, Charles Robert Darwin was born.  He read his grandfather’s works and also attended the University of Edinburgh Medical School.   His family was primarily Unitarian, and thus ‘having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof (2 Tim. 3:5)’ they believing that Jesus was inspired by God, and a Son by Creation, but not with deity.   Yet Paul and all the apostles knew, ‘in Christ all the fullness of the Deity (of God) lives in bodily form (Col. 2:9).”

At the University, Darwin joined the Plinian Society.   Started in 1823, it was a club for students in natural history.  Many, if not most of the students, encouraged debates and agendas against traditional creation religion and towards various scientific theories.   Understand, orthodox or traditional biblical Christianity does not oppose true scientific laws, only junk science and unsubstantiated imaginations.

Now, not only was Charles Darwin influenced by his grandfather’s work, and his father, the Plinian Society, and his upbringing as a Unitarian, but also many others.  He assisted Robert Edmond Grant, professor of Comparative Anatomy, on various marine animal experiments and studies of invertebrates.  Remember, professors get more attention and money based on their popularity, often regardless of their correctness.  Anyway, Grant influenced Darwin, and Grant had cited works such as Darwin’s Zoonomia in his dissertation.  Also, while in France visiting universities in France, Germany, and Switzerland, Grant was befriended and heard lectures by Etienne Geoffroy, professor of zoology in Paris, and member of Napoleon’s scientific expedition to Egypt.  Thousands of miles away from ‘civilized’ Paris, Geoffroy also discovered different creatures on the island of Madagascar.

Understand, we now know that about 90% of all plant and animal species found in Madagascar are endemic (unique) – found nowhere else in the world.  It is known for its biodiversity.  So when about 200 years old, scientists saw dozens of different lemurs and a myriad of reptiles – all kinds of chameleons, and exotic plants, they must have felt more than excitement, but a kind of stepping into another planet or period of time.  However, they did not, they only discovered a different earthly habitat and environment effected by different temperatures and protections that the remote island provided.

Anyway, Geoffroy was a companion of Jean Baptiste Fourier, who went on the expedition with him.  And these men, influenced by a variety of sources, believed in and taught a form of evolution.  And Darwin was greatly influenced by them and studied their works, and participated also as a student and apprentice of Grant.  Grant took a position at University College London as Professor of Comparative Anatomy until his death in 1874.  Darwin kept correspondence with Grant, even visiting and getting advice from him in 1831, before Charles’ voyage on the HMS Beagle where he spent 18 months at sea, between his 3 years and 3 months on various lands.

Darwin found strange fossils and specimens and saw hundreds and thousands of new creatures as he explored South America, Tahiti and Australia.  All home to thousands of animals and plants that are foreign and unknown to Great Britain.  It must be evolution, look a black man there, a white man there, a tall one, a short one (pressure of mountainous elevation and gravity is known to stunt growth – a pint less blood on average), redder there and yellow in that region.

Do not forget that Darwin arrived more than 5 generations after the Spanish took native American ‘Indians’ for ‘wives’ and that they and the Portuguese and English carried Negro slaves to countries on four continents – it has to be evolution because it is so different.   No it has to be reality, what a difference four generations of breeding and crossbreeding can make in both plants and animals and humans.

Anyway, Darwin return to England convinced of the theory of evolution by natural selection.  That is evolution and survival, i.e. reproduction, of animals and species and cells and with random mutations of organisms.  In 1858, Darwin was joined by Alfred R. Wallace (fellow naturalist, explorer, anthropologist, biologist) in a presentation.  Wallace had collected over 125,000 specimens – more than 80,000 beetles – while in the East Indies.  He even discovered a flying frog.   Well, Wallace and Darwin wrote various papers and gave lectures.  In the early 1860s Wallace defended natural selection and yielded greatly to Darwin’s excitement.  But a few years after Darwin’s On the Origin of Species (published late 1859), Wallace begin to make public statements, in which it was published he ‘changed his mind’ concerning ‘the survival of the fittest’ theory.  Wallace originally shaped his ideas on evolution upon a foundation of distaste for FIRST CAUSE theology.  Later he accepted a form of spiritualism and morals that played a part in natural selection.

So in 1859, Darwin produced his theory in On the Origin of Species.  It sold out quickly and began to circulate.  Darwin said, “As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, if it vary however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life, will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be naturally selected. From the strong principle of inheritance, any selected variety will tend to propagate its new and modified form.”  Darwin concluded that “There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.”

Darwin, gives lite reference to the ‘breathe of life (Gen. 2:7)’ ‘into one’ soul Adam, and then evolves his statement to the subject of cycling changes and evolution.  And of course, the preachers of the day fought back; but not with science, only with jokes and a variety of verses.  And the clergy and church could not offer what the universities and well versed professors could – new terms and interest and new discovers and excitements and opportunities beyond simple faith and humble agriculture occupations.

And Darwin was not alone.   Wallace, Matthew, Gray, Hooker, Huxley, Lyell, and many other associates supported and encouraged Darwin.   And liberal Anglicans and Unitarians would say that natural selection was part of God’s design.  And debates took place, such as supported by the British Association for the Advancement of Science.

Moreover, absent international copyrights, various publishing firms, such as in New York, sought to make MONEY over the subject and published Darwin’s work.  Professors and students and future teachers for all aged children read and debated the subject.  And liberal theologians joined the excitement and produced Essays and Reviews, selling and or distributing tens of thousands of copies.  Thus, before the Civil War was over in the United States, Darwinism had become an unstoppable force.

In this fertile ground, Darwin continued to write, adding his The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871), which in a greater and bolder way offered the theory of human evolution and natural selection.  Although, i am sure, that ‘sexual selection’ is for the most part universally understood.  Nevertheless, these discussions and their endowments, and university endowments, would lead to new subjects and departments in colleges: evolutionary psychology, evolutionary biology, etc.

And so Darwin and some of his children and untold numbers of other professor promoted natural selection and evolutionary biology.  In 1876, in his Recollections of the Development of my Mind and Character, Darwin stated recalling earlier days, ‘One day, when we were walking together, Grant burst forth in high admiration of Lamarck and his views on evolution. I listened in silent astonishment, and as far as I can judge, without any effect on my mind. I had previously read the Zoonomia of my grandfather, in which similar views are maintained.’  See it is not such a phenomenon how generations in the same soil can influence those educated in their ways.  The Muslims and Christians show this true in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas.  Given time and generations, most people will not only be influenced, but follow amd build upon the doctrines of their parents and grandparents and more so there instructors and professors, religious or secular.

So Darwin, finding a high pedestal and stage to speak from, and followed by so many without understanding, for the sake of money, attention and or occupation, laid out his theories, namely stately in Descent of Man, “the sole object of this work is to consider, firstly, whether man, like every other species, is descended from some pre-existing form; secondly, the manner of his development; and thirdly, the value of the differences between the so-called races of man.”

Concerning the races, he purported that the human races were likely from different or distinct species.  He referred to some as ‘civilised races’ versus ‘savage races.’  Well considering the so-called ‘black race of man’ was still under great servitude in all of Christendom, did not have a sit at the universities to debate, nor a vote, nor civil rights they enjoy today, it was quite easy for the ‘white race’ to accept that there must be differences.  Though breed ONE of either race with the other race, white or black, European, African, American Native or Asian, and continue to do so for a hundred years, and the descendants of that ‘buck’ will look and be in all DNA fashion most predominantly the other race.

Darwin stated, “American aborigines, Negroes and Europeans differ as much from each other in mind as any three races that can be named; yet I was incessantly struck, whilst living with the Fuegians on board the Beagle… shewing how similar their minds were to ours; and so it was with the full-blooded negro.”   Looks and languages can be different all over the world.  And you take a full Spaniard and a full Native South American Indian and they will have various shades of Mestizo, ‘mixed’ children and ancestries; but all of the same world and time and generation – not a thing to do with evolution, but everything to do with world exploration and conquering.  Likewise, with the Mulatto, Hapa, Half-breed, Biracial, Creole, Half-caste, High yellow, Marranos, or whatever term you preferred to describe human creatures of mixed colors.

Nevertheless, back to Charles; it is said that according to Lady Hope and signed affidavits (later published 1915) as he neared death (1882), “he was sitting up in bed… held an open Bible… and said, ‘I made some allusions to the strong opinions expressed by many persons on the history of the Creation, its grandeur, and then their treatment of the earlier chapters of the Book of Genesis.’  He seemed greatly distressed, his fingers twitched nervously, and a look of agony came over his face as he said: ‘I was a young man with unformed ideas. I threw out queries, suggestions, wondering all the time over everything, and to my astonishment, the ideas took like wildfire. People made a religion of them.’ Then he paused, and after a few more sentences on the holiness of God looking at the Bible …he suddenly said: ‘I have a summer house in the garden which holds about thirty people. It is over there,’ pointing through the open window. “I want you very much to speak there. I know you read the Bible in the villages. Tomorrow afternoon I should like the servants on the place, some tenants and a few of the neighbours; to gather there. Will you speak to them?’ “What shall I speak about?” I asked. “Christ Jesus!” he replied in a clear, emphatic voice, adding in a lower tone, “and His salvation. Is not that the best theme? And then I want you to sing some hymns with them. You lead on your small instrument, do you not?” The wonderful look of brightness and animation on his face as he said this I shall never forget, for he added: ‘If you take the meeting at three o’clock this window will be open, and you will know that I am joining in with the singing’.”

Another fact, remember Charles’ dad was somewhat of an ophthalmologist, and in Darwin’s Origin of Species Charles speaks of the eye saying, “To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting …focus …admitting different amounts of light… correction of …aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree…”

Yet many of Darwin’s children and most of his scientist contemporaries were vested in their positions, and money, occupation and future was on the line.  So, as he stated, they exalted Darwinism as a religion, and milked it until their deaths; and within a few generations it did not matter, evolutionary theory had its place in the Texts, and Creationism would soon be pushed out as a theory, and replaced with evolution taught as if it was a fact.

 

CHAPTER TWO: EVOLUTION PROBLEMS

          Before starting this chapter, i offer a couple of statements reported by George Caylor from a conversation at his wife’s JoAnne’s Bed and Breakfast, once the residence for the president of Randolph College in Lynchburg, Virginia (google it if you please).  George has heard all kind of things from guess, including a congressman discussing possible impeachment against Clinton as they heard the Monica Lewinsky story break.  So in about New York 2000 he had a guess name Jeff who was/is a molecular biologist.

In their conversation Jeff stated trying to find and correct mistakes in genetic research is ‘a bit like an editor, trying to find a spelling mistake inside… four sets of Encyclopedia Britannica… thousands of pages… without spell check… and we don’t know yet how the words are supposed to be spelled… (or) which languageWe are learning as we go…’  Then George asks, ‘How did all that genetic information get there?’  Jeff, a secular Jew stated, ‘Do you mean, did it just happen?  Did it evolve?’  George, ‘Bingo.  Do you believe that the information evolved?’  Jeff, ‘George, nobody I know in my profession believes it evolved. It was engineered by ‘genius beyond genius,’ and such information could not have been written any other way. The paper and ink did not write the book! Knowing what we know, it is ridiculous to think otherwise.’  George, ‘Have you ever stated that in a public lecture…?’  Jeff, ‘To be a molecular biologist requires one to hold on to two insanities at all times. One, it would be insane to believe in evolution when you can see the truth for yourself. Two, it would be insane to say you don’t believe in evolution. All government work, research grants, papers, big college lectures – everything would stop. I’d be out of a job, or relegated to the outer fringes where I couldn’t earn a decent living.’ George, ‘…that sounds intellectually dishonest.’ Jeff, ‘The work… is honorable.  We will find the cures to many… diseases.  But in the meantime, we have to live with the elephant in the living room… Creation design… it moves around, takes up …space… smells like an elephant.  And yet we have to swear it isn’t there!’

Evolutionary geneticists have tried to mutate fruit flies and various creatures and have tried to show changes such that would imply a new species.  However, no new species have been produced nor missing links discovered.   In 1999, Jeffrey Schwartz, professor of Anthropology, stated, “…with the exception of Dobzhansky’s claim about a new species of fruit fly, the formation of a new species, by any mechanism, has never been observed…”

Evolutionists argue that the evolution process in slow moving across millions of years and thus cannot be observed and only can be studied by fossil records and theories.  Yet, if evolution is as Darwin once taught, in a state of constant motion towards better change, or as coined by Herbert Spencer, natural selection is continued by ‘survival of the fittest;’ then where are the examples of real change or transitional forms between those evolving species.  Why can’t different species breed together?  Where are the tiger-dragons, or intelligent winged apes and various winged prey?  They cannot escape their natural form and original species.  They are as stated in Genesis, after ‘their kind.’

Likewise, Dr. Leslie Orgel, in volume 271 of Scientific American (1994), stated, ‘…The precise events giving rise to the RNA world remain unclear… (and) evidence… is fragmentary at best.’   As Darwin stated, evolution became a religion.  Its takes faith to believe in some billions of years or millions of year’s theory, without any evidence.  Willard Libby, the founder of Radiocarbon dating, a recent science, said explicitly that you cannot radiocarbon date beyond 20,000 or 30,000 years due to the half-life of C-14.  And this did not take change in atmospheric environments into consideration.  Thus, it is senseless to use millions of years or even tens of thousands, when it is a known fact that civilization began less than 10,000 years ago in Mesopotamia; and biblically known to be less than 6,000 years ago according to the Hebrew calendar.

Additionally, evolutionary biologists suggest that through natural selection, mutations, and survival of the fittest, cells evolved into life and life evolved into various species.  Yet, how is there life without an earth or a sun?  Where did the sun and earth come from?  And as the Lord said to Job, “Can you bring forth the constellations in their seasons… do you know the ordinances of the heavens, or can you impose dominion over the earth?”  Thus, evolutionary biologists were forced to work with cosmologist.

In 1974, cosmologist and physicist Stephen Hawking began his claim that material which falls into a black hole disappears forever.  This statement in and of itself goes against the fundamental laws of physics, primarily the law of conservation of mass, such as discovered by Lavoisier in the 18th century, that mass can neither be created nor destroyed by man.  It can be rearranged or changed in form, but matter will still exist.  This law, lead to Dalton’s discoveries of atomic theory, which found that matter is composed of atoms.   Atom comes from the Greek ‘atomos’ and means ‘uncuttable.’  Because scientists discovered atoms were not the small unit, but comprised of other matter, they came up with the term ‘particles,’ and of course: electrons, protons and neutrons.

Now, Hawking for decades speaking of his string theories and of black holes; yielded and said radiation can escape a black hole.  By 2013, he said black holes have ‘apparent horizons’ and light and information can escape.  Recently at the Cedars-Sinai Regenerative Medicine Institute, Hawking said, ‘Why do we exist?  Why this particular set of laws, and not some other?  I believe the answers to all these things is M-theory?’  Basically, M-theory combines several ideas in physics and mathematics and tries to suggest that there are several dimensions in the fabric of space-time.

Hawking added, ‘we must continue to go into space for humanity.  We won’t survive another 1,000 years without escaping our fragile planet.’  Einstein once believed that the Universe was not expanding.  But a few years later admitted his error after astronomers discovered that stars were moving away at great speeds.  Even Einstein, a believer in God, would admit that there is nowhere to escape the coming Judgment and consummation of the world – in space or on earth.

Anyway, the point is that in order for evolution and anti-creation theories to survive, they must go hand in hand with big bang theories and other such imaginations and non-proven suggestions that point away from the Bible.   They ignore the fact that the Universe could not have created itself and that it has a finite existence.  Hawking said in his book The Grand Design (2010), ‘…because there is a law such as gravity, the universe can and will create itself from nothing.’

If any student stood up and said that a hundred years ago during any reputable astronomy or physics lecture, they would have been laughed at and quenched.  Thus, it is to say, something can come from nothing.  That is to say: MATTER, ‘substance; physical content’ existing, can come from ‘naught; having no existence or matter.’  It makes no sense.  Of course it in beyond our ability to understand where GOD came from – how has HE always existed in the concept of TIME or MATTER?  But that does not change the fact that we are here breathing and existing and full of matter and DNA and HE is GOD, invisible and full of omnipotence.

 

 CHAPTER THREE: EVOLUTION

            Universities had studied and discussed the subject of evolution for over 160 years, yet it was not until after the 1925 Scopes Trial that the theory of evolution began to gain support by the public.   And it would take a couple of more generations to evolve to the point of entering primarily education text books.  During the 1950s the Space Race was on and children wanted to be astronauts and parents began to support the science community.  During the 1960s the Supreme Court began to kick the Bible, Prayer and God out of everything public.  During the 1980’s in Arkansas and Louisiana, laws were passed requiring creationism to be taught.  In Edwards vs. Aquillard (1987) the Supreme Court ruled that these and any such laws violated the establishment clause of the First Amendment, and thus, were unconstitutional.  Creationism was religion to the Supreme Court, and not a true science.

So in 1950, the National Science Foundation (NSF) was founded and became a government agency that supported research and education in non-medical fields of science and engineering.  NASA was formed in 1958.  The NSF counterpart, the National Institutes of Health, under the U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services had already been formed decades before – even before the 1930 Ransdell Act changed its name to the current NIH.   So as the Supreme Court said Creationism was a religion; U.S. Government administrations with public taxpayers billions of dollars began to fund the Sciences as requested and designed by secular people.  The NSF began to fund the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) which in the 1960s began to place evolution in high school biology textbooks.

According to their own site, www.bscs.org/history after ‘1957… the Soviets had won the race to space with the first-ever successful launch of a satellite… critics quickly began accusing the United States of falling behind the Soviets in science and technology education…  One year later… NASA was created, and in that same year, Congress passed the National Defense Education Act (NDEA)… to develop state-of-the-art science textbooks… BSCS …was established in 1958 by a grant from the NSF… the goal with the creation of BSCS was better science textbooks, particularly in the biological sciences.’   Interesting they mock us using creation in their description but leave it out where it counts – in the texts.

Anyway, I keep telling you – keep an eye on the god of this world – Money; i.e. follow the money.  So the BSCS website, list under ‘Partners and Collaborators,’ the AAAS, ASTE, a publishing company, universities, NSTA and others; with the point being that all of the associations and their unions and their related ‘businesses and organizations and universities’ ALL are significantly or totally funded directly or indirectly through PUBLIC TAXES or Government Agencies.  And we are talking BILLIONS of dollars, and TENS of THOUSANDS of jobs.

So by the 1970s, evolution was firmly planted in the fertile RICH soil of the Educational System.  The same system that is REQUIRED in PUBLICLY FUNDED SCHOOLS to teach that homosexually in no longer abnormal; and more so SAME SEX unions, marriages and the adoption of children into their normal ‘families’ should be supported and ANYTHING RELIGIOUS is to be seen as superstition and abnormal paranoia.

So science textbooks add Evolution and new terms and experiments.  Some published the 1953 Miller-Urey experiment which sought to show changes in life; the experiment tested chemical origins of life by simulating biochemical elements (water, methane, ammonia and hydrogen) and subjecting them to various conditions.  They found amino acids and supposed that thus primitive Earth produced life through random conditions.   However, over the years, truth seeking scientists began to debunk the study.  The atmosphere they used did not represent our early atmosphere.  Also, trace amounts of simple amino acids prove little.   Although about 98.8% of human DNA can be found in a chimpanzee, half of the DNA in humans can be found in a banana.  Are we related to the banana?  About 90% of our DNA, deoxyribonucleic nucleic acids, is found in cats; but where is the missing link, the illusive snow-ape-cat?  They were of course made extinct by the mystery Tiger-dragon; also responsible for the extinct unicorn.

Anyway, DNA, RNA and proteins are the three major macromolecules that are essential for all forms of life.  And affected by these and with these and of course within proteins are amino acids, organic compounds of amine and carboxylic acid – made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and connected to and mingled with other elements.  Over 500 amino acids have been classified.

Now it is a significant FACT that at least 9 proteinogenic amino acids are called ‘essential’ for humans because they cannot be created from other compounds by the human body and MUST BE received THROUGH FOOD SOURCES OUTSIDE the body.   Additionally, essential amino acids differ often between species.  SPECIES are a biological classification defined as the largest group of organisms in which two are capable of reproducing offspring.  Similarity of DNA is meaningless and proves only that the earth has a finite source and number of elements.

SO it is a FACT that proteins (from the Greek – ‘proteios’ – prime importance) are required for ALL PLANTS AND ANIMALS to LIVE.  At least 14% of the calories of every plant are protein.   For example, broccoli contains more protein per calorie than steak, but of course the weight/grams are much different, so a square inch of steak will contain more protein, but much less value after a square foot of steak.  Anyway, it is also a FACT that of the 20 amino acids in our body’s proteins; our BODY REQUIRES 9 essential proteins THROUGH DIET, because our CELLS CANNOT MANUFACTURE them: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phyenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine.  And though we can synthesize arginine, during childhood growth, the body can’t always keep up with the needed amounts and thus must supplement from FOOD sources.

QUESTION, SO: please help: IF ALL plants and animals contain proteins, and ALL humans have 20 amino acids in our body’s proteins, AND IF we REQUIRE 9 ‘essential’ amino acids that MUST be received from FOOD sources, BECAUSE our body CANNOT manufacture these 9 (and at times enough of arginine – a 10th) THEN please tell me HOW life can come from a soup of amino acids (be instructed by DNA and transfer properly w/RNA) and live more than days or weeks without being able to EAT something else or a multiple of somethings that contain the 9 essential amino acids [keeping in mind that the LIFEFORM would have to be developed enough in the first place to EAT and have a proper digestion system]? THUS, that must be impossible; but placing a man and woman in amidst i garden of food source is possible. And if it blows your mind that i am speaking of Genesis and GOD our CREATOR, than stop, take a breath – a deep one – hit yourself (lightly) – and sense that you are alive… i.e. existing… and thus by all logic and wisdom – this REQUIRED a FIRST CAUSE.

Sir Fred Hoyle and Charles Wickramasinghe stated in their book, Evolution from Space, that “they estimated the probability of forming a single enzyme or protein at random, in a rich ocean of amino acids, was no more than one in 10 to the 20th power.” Next, they calculated the likelihood of forming all of the 2000+ enzymes used in the life forms of earth. This probability was calculated at one in 10 to the 40,000th power.  Thus they stated that the “belief in the chemical evolution of the first cell from lifeless chemicals is equivalent to believing that a tornado could sweep through a junkyard and form a Boeing 747.”

 

UNDER CONSTRUCTION

 

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