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Chronology 306-610


From Constantine to Muhammad

Chronology of Early Church Fathers and related Events

Name / Event Date Place Notes: (c. = circa/about)
Constantius dies 306 Britain Father of Constantine
Emperor Constantine I 306 Rom. Empire Caesar of the West until 337
Marcellus 308 Rome Bishop of Rome (30th Pope)
Miltiades 311 Rome Bishop of Rome
Donatist Controversy 311 N. Africa Carthage has – ‘apostate bishop’
Bishop Peter martyred 311 Alexandria Head of school of Alexandria
312 Constantine the Great victory at Milvian bridge attributes to XP, ‘Christ’
Edict of Milan 313 Rom. Empire Equal toleration for all religions
Rule: Heresy a crime 313 By emp. Constantine, Theodosius & Theodosius
Council of Arles 314 Gaul (France), condemned Donatism
Sylvester I 314 Rome Bishop of Rome until 335
c.318 persecution of Christians in Eastern Roman Empire under Emperor Licinius
Churches 320 West Empire Churches start becoming wealthy
Eusebius of Caesarea c.323 Writes Ecclesiastical History, & other works
Constantine victory 324 Constantine defeats Licinius
Emperor Constantine 324 Reunites Roman Empire; becomes sole emperor
Council of Nicaea 325 Nicea, Turkey Called by Constantine
20 Canons by 318 Christian leaders; cannoned books of Bible; and Nicaean Creed
The Nicene Creed: We believe in one God, the Father Almighty… and in Jesus Christ…

Canon 3: forbidden for any bishop, presbyter, deacon, clergy to own a dwelling

Canon 4: Bishop should be appointed by all the bishops in the province (no Pope) –

Canon 6: Let the ancient customs in Egypt, Libya and Pentapolis prevail, that the Bishop of Alexandria have jurisdiction in all these, since the like is customary for the Bishop of Rome also.  Likewise in Antioch and the other provinces, let the Churches retain their privileges… bishop (must have) consent of the Metropolitan (their city).

Canon7: Bishop of Jerusalem honored; 18: deacons can administer the Eucharist

Council: set date for Pascha, Pesach, Passover – Easter

Codex Vaticanus c.325 oldest nearly complete copy of the Greek Bible
Post-Nicene Fathers 326- After 325 Council, many are called post-N Fathers
Chur. of Holy Sepulchre 326 Jerusalem Construction begins
Athanasius 328 Alexandria A… become bishop
Helena (Constantine’s mom) dies in 328; she founded Church of Nativity in Bethlehem and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem (said to be over tomb of Christ).

In 135 Emperor Hadrian level area to build temple to Aphrodite; 326 Constantine ordered the pagan temple to be destroyed and Helena lead plans to build Church.

Bishops judicial power 335 Constantine grants bishops certain powers
‘Pope’ Mark 336 Rome Becomes bishop of Rome

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Chronology of Post-Nicene Fathers and related Events

1st recorded Christmas 336 “25 Dec.: natus Christus in Betleem Judeae”
Julius I 337 Rome Becomes bishop of Rome
Emp. Constantine dies 337 Nicomedia Dies in modern Turkey
Constantine called the bishops to baptize him, returned to hot baths of Helenopolis, Nicomedia and died the last day of the 50 day Pentecost festival following Easter
Constantine II 337 Becomes joint emperor of Roman Empire
Constantius II 337 Joint emperor of Roman Empire with brothers
Constans 337 Joint emperor; defeated Constantine II in 340
Eusebius of Caesarea c.338 Antioch Writes: Life of Constantine
Eusebius dies c.340 Recorded that E… turned down offer to be bishop
Council of Antioch 341 Antioch Minor council to confirm Nicene
Council of Sardica c.342 Sardica To settle Arian controversies
Council of Carthage c.348 Carthage One of many in C…, N. Africa
Carthage dealt with baptism, ordinances, canons, ‘heretics,’ bishop’s authority, etc.
Codex Sinaiticus c.350 OT & ‘oldest complete copy of the N.T.’ (Greek)
Sanctus hymn ‘Holy’ c.350 Enters liturgy in many Churches (mainly Eastern)
Liberius 352 Rome Becomes bishop of Rome
Council of Milan 355 Milan, Italy Called by Constantius II
Emperor Flavius Julian 361 Rom. Empire Died 363; anti-Christian emperor
Basil of Caesarea 362 Asia Minor Becomes Deacon
Emperor Vatentinian I 364 Rom. Empire Emperor of the West to 375
Cappadocian Fathers: Basil the Great, bishop Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus

Eastern Orthodox: Three Hierarchs: Basil, Gregory of Nazianzus, and John Chrysostom

Basil & Gregory Nazia.. 358 Compile Origen’s works (Philocalia)
Hillel II – of Sanhedrin c.359 Produces Hebrew Calendar; 670 Seleucid year
Arianism expanding c.360 Believed Jesus did not always exist, created
The Huns of Asia c.360 Europe Huns invade eastern Europe
Damasus I 366 Rome Becomes bishop of Rome
Bishop Frumentius c.367 Ethiopia Spreads gospel in Africa
Hilary of Poitiers dies c.367 Once exiled for defense against Arianism
Ephrem the Syrian dies c.373 Edessa 1,000+ treaties, sermons, hymns
Gregory of Nyssa c.375 Nyssa Produces: Great Catechism, etc.
Basil the Great dies 379 Caesarea Theologian, author, bishop
Emperor Theodosius I 379 Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire to 392
Martin of Tours c.380 Spread Christianity throughout Gaul (France)
Council Constantinople 381 Restored Nicene creed and prohibited Arianism
Jerome 382 Rome Secretary to Pope; starts Vulgate
Jerome translation would take years in various in places
Pope Damasus dies 384 Rome He had Catholic churches built
Pope Siricius 384 Rome Becomes bishop of Rome

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Chronology of Post-Nicene Fathers and related Events

4 Doctors of the Western Church: Gregory the Great, Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome
Bishop Cyril dies 386 Jerusalem Theologian, archbishop of Jer.
Ambrose baptizes 387 Milan Ambrose baptized Augustine
In 390, Ambrose refused mass to emperor Theodosius, Emperor of the East, for killing 7,000 people in the Massacre of Thessalonica until he recalled his army and repented.  Ambrose warned against the problems of intermarriage with pagans and Jews.  Ambrose said, ‘when I go to Rome, I fast on Saturday, but in Milam I do not.’
Emperor Theodosius I 392 Rom. Empire Sole emperor of East and West
Emperor Honorius 395 Rom. Empire a devout Catholic; west Empire
Augustine 395 Hippo Wrote On Christian Doctrine
Bishop Valerius dies 396 Hippo Augustine becomes bishop
Bishop Ambrose dies 397 Milan Ambrosius left many writings
Bishop Augustine 397 Hippo Wrote Confessions
Anastasius 399 Rome Becomes bishop of Rome
Chrysostom c.400 East Publishes Liturgy; he dies 407
John Chrysostom ‘Golden Mouth,’ was bishop of Constantinople; a great preacher
c.400 Augustine publishes On the Trinity, which he worked on for 20 years.
Pope Innocent I 401-417 Claims ‘apostolic power’ for bishop of Rome
THE LATIN VULGATE BIBLE: Jerome was commissioned by the Pope to revise the Latin Bible.  In 384 after the death of Pope Damasus, Jerome was forced to leave Rome; after traveling through Antioch and several shrines in Palestine, he settled in Bethlehem in 386.  In 387 he studied the Hexapla of Origin (Bible in 6 languages).  About 390 he began to translate the Old Testament from the Hebraica veritas.   The Entire Latin Vulgate was finished about 405.
Council of Carthage 417 200+ bishops, Augustine denounces Pelagianism
Emperor Valentinian III 423 Rom. Empire Rules west Roman Empire to 455
Augustine 426 The City of God finished after about 13 years.
Vandals invade Africa 429 From Spain Vandals were Arian Christians
Bishop Augustine dies 430 Hippo Regius Dies in Roman Africa; Algeria
Augustine, one of the Latin Fathers of the Church, wrote on nearly every Christian doctrine.  He started the foundation for ‘divine predestination.’   Augustine said, ‘Predestination is nothing else than the foreknowledge and foreordaining of those gracious gifts which make certain the salvation of all who are saved.’  But he added, the it does not exclude the possibility that one chosen to grace can still go to hell.  Augustine converted his residence into a monastery, and observed religious poverty.
Pope Celestine 431 Pope sends Palladius to be bishop in Ireland
Patrick 432 Patrick begins missionary work in Ireland
Attila the Hun 433 The Huns attack Roman provinces
Britain 436 Roman troops leave Britain
Vandals take Carthage 439 Vandals conquer from Morocco to Tunisia
Pope Sixtus III dies 440 He introduced Sanctus into Western liturgy

Chronology of Christian Events

Cyril of Alexandria dies 444 He was a bishop; served over Council of Ephesus
Cyril was a theologian, ‘Pope of Alexandria,’ and Doctor of the Church.  His uncle, Theophilus had served as the ‘Pope of Alexandria.’  Many of his writing have survived.

The pope or ‘Patriarch’ of Alexandria is the highest-ranking bishop of Egypt.

Britain 449 Angles and Saxons arrive in south east Britain
Pope Leo I 449 Letter: ‘brother Flavian’ bishop of Constantinople
Leo’s Tome: ‘…Eutyches, who seemed to b deserving to the …title of Presbyter, is now shown to be… inexperienced… into this folly (some) fall… from the truth, (looking) not  to the words of the Prophets, not to the letters of the Apostles, nor to the authority of the Gospels, but to themselves; and become teachers of error…’
Council of Chalcedon 451 Asia Minor Fourth Ecumenical Council
Council: against Eutyches, Monophysites and others who erred on the nature of Christ
Vandals attack Rome 453 Rome The city is spared for pope Leo
Attila the Hun dies 453 Hungary defeated 70+ Roman cities
Mayans  100+ gods c.460 Mexico Pyramids for human sacrifice
‘Leonine’ Sacramentary c.460 Pope Leo credited with oldest Sacramentary
Pope Leo dies 461 Rome Text of prayers and chants
476  Romulus Augustus – last Western Roman Emperor forced to abdicate title
Theoderic the Visigoth 475 Balkans Son of king Theodemir
Theoderic or Theodoric began king of Italy and Balkans – he was king of the Ostrogoths
Odoacer – king of Italy

Odoacer acquires Sicily





First barbarian king of Italy

Treaty w/ Vandals

Fall of Roman Empire 476  

Year of last Emperor


‘Romulus Augustus’
Clovis age 15; King 481 Gaul (France) Silian Franks; first Merovingian
Gelaius I becomes pope 492 Rome One of the last Berber popes
Odoacer assassinated 493 Italy Theodoric killed him at banquet
Pope Gelasius I dies 496 Rome ended pagan Lupercalia festival
Anastasius II 496 Rome Died 498 short of 2 years as pope
King Clovis baptized c496 Gaul (France) Bishop Remigius baptizes King
Clovis’ wife was a Christian; after his baptism, 3000 of his warriors were baptized

By 511 Christianity extended to many of the Gauls

Clovis King of Franks 509 becomes 1st King of the Franks (all France)
Clovis dies 511/513 France Buried at basilica in France
Clovis’ kingdom to his sons: Theuderic, Chlodomer, Childebert and Clotaire
Pope Symmachus dies 514 Rome in 499 called Synod of 72 bishops
Christians killed 523 Najran 200-300 martyred by Dhu Nuwas
Pope Hormisdas dies 523 Rome Dominated by Acacian schism
Queen Hu 528 N. China Buddhist Hu kills son and others
Pope Felix IV dies 530 Built Church in the Roman Forum on Palatine Hill
Emperor Justinian I 527-532 fought Persians – Sasanian Empire (was Parthian)
Four popes die 532-537 Boniface II,  John II, Agapetus I, and Silverius
Emperor Justinian I 535/536 Byzantine ruler invades Naples, Italy
Babylonian Talmud Compiled between late 5th and early 6th century
Pope Vigilius 537-555 Rome father noble Roman consul; brother was senator
Empress Theodora, wife of Justinian I – emperor of Byzantine, paid pope Vigilius and others for support; yet Justinian supported Chalcedonian Christianity.  They both did much for Christianity, building more than 25 churches including the Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia begins 537 ‘Holy Wisdom;’ Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey)
Ecumenical Council 553 at Constantinople affirms previous councils
By mid-6th century: Rome, Constantinople and Carthage were mostly of Chalcedonian (dyophysite) belief; Alexandria, Jerusalem and Antioch were primarily monophysite.   In 451 the Council of Chalcedon taught that Jesus’ humanity and divinity are of two natures – and one Spirit – the Son of God – divine, and Son of Man – born in flesh of the virgin and human; yet, Emanuel – God with us.  Monophysitism holds that Jesus has one nature all divine or a synthesis of divine and human.
Pope Pelagius I dies 561 Rome 2nd of the Byzantine Papacy
Emp. Justinian I dies 565 Constantinople Eastern Rome/Byzantine emp.
Emperor Justin II 565 Nephew of Justinian and Theodora rules
Justin II 572 War with Sassanid (Iran); refuses to pay tribute
Pope John III dies 574 Rome His father was a Roman senator
Pope Benedict I dies 579 Rome There have been 15 Benedicts
Pope Pelagius II dies 580 Rome Promoted celibacy of clergy
Visigoths of Spain 580 Spain Begin to convert to Christianity
Gregory the Great becomes Pope 590


His father was a wealthy patrician.  He was well-educated and well-traveled.
Gregory lecture and wrote often.  Though pope, he was subject to the Emperor.  He not only cared for souls, but had to oversee that crops were sufficient for the poor.   He claimed at the Roman See (Church) had universal authority.  The ‘Roman Pontiff’ wrote a ‘Book of Pastoral Rule’ and many letters ‘to all bishops.’
Ash Wednesday 590 Fasting tradition 6 ½ weeks before Lent begins
Black Plague (Death) Europe Plague wipes out about 1/3 of Europe’s people
Gregory of Tours dies 594 He was a Gallic bishop and historian
Muhammad c.595 Mecca Marries 1st wife Khadijah
Muhammad’s father died before his birth c.570; and his mother died c.576.  His grandfather sent him to Syria to live with his uncle Abu Talib; where he meets Khadijah.  They have Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Khultoom and Fatima Zahra.  His uncle taught him some Christian teachings, as did Najran Christians; and Muhammad begins to believe in ‘one God.’   At the time, the Kaaba was a place of over 100 idols.
Gregory sends monks 596 Britain Pope sends monks to the English
Augustine the monk 596/7 Preaches to Ethelbert king of Kent, England
Augustine – bishop 597 Becomes first Archbishop of Canterbury, England
Archbishop of Canterbury is the head bishop or leader of the Church of England.  From Augustine of Canterbury to Justin Welby in 2017 were 1420 years and 105 bishops.  Before the Reformation the post was under the pope and Roman Catholic Church.
Pope Gregory I dies 604 He was the first monk to become pope
Archbishop Laurence 604 England made 2nd Archb… of Canterbury
Muhammad 610 Mecca Qur’anic ‘revelation’ begins

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