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PROOF HUMANS DIDN’T EVOLVE FROM APES

1930s-tem-microscope

PROOF HUMANS DIDN’T EVOLVE FROM APES

First Some Microscope History (featured image 1930s TEM microscope)

Johann (Giovanni) Faber is credited with coining the name microscope when speaking about Galileo Galilei’s 1625 ‘occhiolino (‘little eye’).  In 1676, Leeuwenhoek discovered micro-organisms under a microscope; he also discovered red blood cells.  It was not until 1895 that German mechanical engineer and physicist, Wilhelm Rontgen produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range called X-rays. Albert Einstein introduced the photon concept in 1905, but it was not accepted until a generation later.   The first electromagnetic lenses were invented in 1926 by Hans Busch.   The first Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) was invented by Knoll (Technological Uni. of Berlin) and Ruska (Nobel Prize in 1986) in 1931; it was first commercially used in 1939.

April 1953, in volume 171 of the scientific journal NATURE, Crick and Watson published ‘Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for D…N…A.’ At that time, worldwide, scientist were not only racing to get a man on the moon; but also to discover the true structure of a DNA helix.  In the 1950’s, scientist were debating theories of a “Triple-stranded DNA’ and a Double Helix; no one actually saw a strand.  In 1955, Joe Hin Tjio defined 46 as the number of chromosomes in human cells.  In 1962 Crick, Watson and Wilkins shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.”

In 1968, Watson published a controversial account of discovery of ‘The Double Helix.’       The DNA helix could only be viewed by x-ray crystallography, and scientist had to ‘INFER THE STRUCTURE OF THE MOLECULE.’  In 1975, DNA sequencing methods were introduced.  The Color Dyes method is most used is labs today to identify each of the four nucleic acids that make up DNA.  In 1985, Jeffreys of the Uni. of Leicester was able to validate the uniqueness of personalized DNA material in each person’s skin, blood, hair and body fluids.  Only identical twins have the same DNA pattern.  In 1986, DNA was first used in a criminal case in England; then in 1987 it was first used in a Florida, USA case.  And it was 1987 that the First Human Genetic Map DNA sequence was observed (primarily to help locate genes responsible for diseases).

In 1990 the Human Genome Project was started.  It was at Genoa’s Nanostructures Department that an electron microscope first viewed a double helix strand of DNA in 2012 by stringing it between microscopic silicon pillars.

GENETICS THEORIES, ASSUMPTIONS and LAWS

Creation Science was the prevailing belief system and taught method in America and most of Europe until the 20th Century.  In 1801, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck of France coined the term ‘invertebrates;’ and 1802 he was one of the first scientist to use the term ‘biology.’  In 1809 he published Philosophie Zoologique, and from 1815-1822 to produced Seven Volumes that taught basic evolution.  In 1831, Darwin goes to the Galapagos Islands and sees many new and strange animals.   In 1858, Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace published a new evolutionary theory, explained in further detail in Darwin’s On the Origin of Species (1859).  Darwin introduced his ‘THEORY’ of a branching Tree of Life.  In Tennessee in 1925, John Scopes, a high school biology teacher went on trial (‘Monkey Trial’) for teaching a ‘theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible.’  The trial turned into a media circus between the statesmen, William Jennings Bryan, who died that same year at 65, and the famous intelligent Clarence Darrow (then age 68).

In 1963, the Supreme Court in Abington School v. Schempp, said that organized ‘reading of the Bible’ in school was an unconstitutional ‘religious exercise.’  In 1968, in Epperson v. Arkansas, the Supreme Court ruled that teaching evolution in public schools and state universities violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.   In 1982, in McLean v. Arkansas Board of Education, a federal court struck down the state’s law requiring schools to teach CREATION Science alongside Evolution.  In 1987, in Edwards v. Aguillard, the Supreme Court struck down a Louisiana law prohibiting the teaching of Evolution in public schools if Creation Science is not taught alongside it.   In 2006, the South Carolina Board of Education, and in 2008, the Louisiana Science Education Act allowed teachers to tell public school students to ‘critically analyze aspects of evolutionary theory’ and give supplemental materials to ‘help students understand, analyze, critique and objectively review scientific theories.’

Up until between the 1990s and about 2012, it was only a theory that Man evolved from Ape and that Man’s DNA was 98.5% the same as a Chimpanzee.  The 99% myth was put forward in 1975 by Wilson and King in SCIENCE, Vol. 188.  However, even if that was the case there would be 1.2% x 3 billion differences (36 million).
The HUMAN GENOME PROJECT

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) begin the National Human Genome Research Institute began in 1989 as the NCHGR.  In 1997, it was renamed as the NHGRI – one of 27 Institutes and centers of the NIH.   The HGP has about 20,500 human genes, less than the once assumed 100,000.  The human genome sequence is three billion (3,000,000,000) base pairs.  In 2001, in NATURE Journal, the HGP identified 90% of the base pairs.

THUS, UNDERSTAND the 1975, 98.5% Chimpanzee Myth was based on very little evidence with very substandard microscopes compared to today’s Electron Microscopes.

In 2005, a HGP study of ‘sequencing strategy for 26 mammals, including Felis Catus, the domestic cat looked at hundreds of thousands of base pairs.  The results resolved chromosomal positions for 663,480 contigs, 20,285 putative feline gene ortholgs, and 133,499 CSB’s and found the ‘Feline gene… 90% of human genes’ and ‘80% of annotated dog genes.’

In 2011, a HGP study of Mice and People, of more than 11,000 genes of brain cells found that “mice and people share 90 percent of their genes so the altas… lays a foundation for future studies of mouse models for human diseases.”

OTHER STUDIES

In 2002, a study of about 1 million base pairs of human and chimp genome found 95%  similarity.  Brittin, “Divergence between Samples of Chimpanzee and Human DNA Sequences is 5%, Counting Indels,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (2002).  In 2003, a study that looked at 1.9 million base pairs found only 87% similarity.  Tatsuya, et. al., “Comparative Sequencing of Human and Chimpanze MHC…”   Several geneticists say that data has been overlooked which could drop the similarity to between 72% and 75% – a far distance from 98.5%.

However, the Cat is approximately as related to Humans as are Monkeys.  Our cells are mainly made up of WATER, accounting for about 70% of our cell MASS.  In this sense, humans share about 55% of the same DNA as a Banana.   Our DNA primarily comes from the same elements and molecules as are in the dirt.  It is as in ‘the Lord God formed man from the dust (elements, molecules) of the dust of the ground (primarily carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen) and breathed into his nostrils (respiratory system) the breath of life; and man became a LIVING SOUL (Living Being; Genesis 2:7).”  And the Lord created all living things ‘according to their kind (species in the Latin Vulgate; English – species or genus; Gen. 1:24).’

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