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Chronology -5 to 100

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CHRISTIAN HISTORY: 5BC – 100 AD

(The First Century: Christ – Early Church Fathers)

 Typically about 4BC to 100 AD is labeled the period of Apostolic Christianity; Paul says (Gal.4:4), ‘When the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth His Son, made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem us that were under the law…’  Barnes’ Notes (1885): ‘of the Father, the designated period for the coming of the Messiah… when all things were ready… which had been predicted (foretold by the prophets).’

Concerning this verse and time, Cairns in his Christianity through the Centuries (1954), writes: ‘the Romans contributed to the religious preparation for the appearance of Christ… 1. No other people up to their time, developed a sense of the unity of mankind under a universal law… the empire created an environment favorable to the reception of the gospel that proclaimed the unity of the human race in the fact that all men are under penalty of sin…  No empire of the ancient Near East not even that of Alexander, had succeeded in bringing to men a sense of their unity in a political organization… 2. Free movement about the Mediterranean world would had been most difficult for the messengers of the gospel before the reign of Augustus Caesar (27 BC – AD 14)…  3. The Romans developed an excellent system of roads… over hill and dale to the farthest point of the empire… 4.The role of the Roman army… some of these men became converts to Christianity and spread the gospel to areas where they were assigned… to Britain (also provided a form of protection – Pax Romana – ‘Roman Peace’). 5. Roman conquests led to a loss of belief by many peoples in the gods because the gods had not been able to keep them from defeat by the Romans.  Such people were left with a spiritual vacuum…

Great as the preparation by Rome for the coming of Christianity was, it was overshadowed by the intellectual environment that the Greek mind provided (after Alexander the Greek had conquered and created a vast empire – as foretold by the prophet Daniel).  The city of Rome may be associated with Christianity’s political environment, but it was Athens that helped provide an intellectual environment that aided the propagation of the gospel… (6) The universal gospel was in need of a universal language if it was to make maximum impact on the world.  Just as English has become the universal in the modern world and just as Latin was such in the medieval scholarly world, so Greek had become the universal tongue in the ancient world.  By the time the Roman Empire appeared, most cultured Romans knew both Greek and Latin…  It was this dialect of the common man, known as Koine and differing from classical Greek, through which Christians were able to make contact with the peoples of the ancient world and in which they were to write their New Testament and the Jews of Alexandria were to write their Old Testament, the Septuagint… 7. Greek philosophy prepared for the coming of Christianity by destroying the older religions…  Socrates and Plato (questioned and revealed ‘first cause,’ etc.)… Greeks held to the immortality of the soul but had no place for a physical resurrection of the body…”

 

Chronology of Jesus Christ and related Events
Name / Event Date Place Notes: (c. = circa/about)
In the beginning… Col. 1:17 ‘He Himself… existed before all things…
Julius Caesar 44 BC dies in Rome Roman Empire (Matt.22:21)
Octavian Augustus Rome 27 BC – 14 Senate recognizes Emperor
Herod the Great 37 BC Palestine Rome: ‘king of Judea, Galilee…’
Zacharias -John’s father c. 5 BC Judea Gabriel appears to Zach. (Luke1)
Virgin Mary c.5 BC Nazareth Luke 1- angel Gabriel foretells
Gabriel declares, ‘His name shall be Jesus – the Son of the Highest’ (Luke 1:31)
John the Baptist born c.5 BC Judea Luke 1:5 ‘time of Herod…’
Caesar Augustus c. 5 BC Rome Empire Tax – ‘all’ Empire; Luke 2:1
Joseph & Mary c. 5 BC Bethlehem From Nazar. to Beth. (Luke 2:4)
Angel to Shepherds c. BC Judea ‘Christ born…’ Luke 2:11
City of David (Isa. 7:14) c. 5 BC Bethlehem Isaiah 9:6 ‘unto us a Child…’
Christ Jesus born c. 5 BC Bethlehem Gen. 3:15; 2 Sam. 7; Micah 5:2
Debated: 6BC to 2BC, best 5-4 BC; Jesus fulfilled 300+ prophecies; 1 in 10 to 157th pwr.
Jesus  8 days old c. 5 BC Bethlehem ‘circumcised’  Luke 2:21
Simeon blesses Jesus c. 5 BC Jerusalem ‘Holy Ghost…’  Luke 2:25-35
Magi / Wise Men c. 5 BC Jerusalem ‘wise men for east’ – Matt. 2
Angel – Joseph’ dream c. 4 BC Judea ‘flee to Egypt…’ Matt. 2:13-16
Herod try’s to kill Jesus c. BC Judea Kill Jews: ‘up to 2 years old’
Death: Herod the Great 4 BC Judea Matt. 2:19; Antipas rules Galilee
Angel – Joseph’ dream 4 BC Egypt ‘go to Israel’ Matt. 2:20
Joseph  (Matt. 2:22) c. 3 BC Nazareth Archelaus son of Herod – Judea
Jesus age 12 8 AD Jerusalem for Passover –  Luke 2:41-42
Jesus age 12 8 AD Jerusalem Witness in Temple –  Luke 2:46
’15th yr. of Tiberius’ Luke 3: According to Suetonius, Tiberius ‘co-princieps’ 12 AD
Caesar Augustus dies 14 Nola / Naples Step-son Tiberius reigns
John the Baptist c. 25 Judea Preaching ‘repent’  Matt. 3:2
Pontius Pilate c. 26 Judea Gov. Judea – Luke 3:1
Jesus about age 30 c. 26 Judea Luke 3:23
John baptizes Jesus c. 26 Jordan River ‘Spirit of God’ – Matt.3:13-
Jesus fasts: wilderness c. 26 Judea devil tempts Him; Matt. 4:1-
John  declares c. 26 Judea ‘the Lamb of God!’ John 1:36
Andrew (disciple  of John) Judea ‘followed Jesus’ John 1:40
Andrew gets brother Simon Peter Judea ‘…found the Messiah’
Jesus finds Philip c. 26 Galilee ‘Follow Me’ – John 1:43
Philip gets Nathanael c. 26 Galilee ‘found Him…’ John 1:45
Nathanael meets Christ Galilee ‘You are the Son of God…’
Marriage in Cana c. 26 Galilee ‘water to wine’ – John 2:9

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Chronology of Jesus Christ and related Events
Name / Event Date Place Notes: (c. = circa/about)
Jesus: Temple Passover c. 27 Jerusalem ‘drove out money changers’
John Baptist in prison c. 27 Judea by ‘Herod the tetrarch;’ Luke 3
Jesus ‘began to preach’ c. 27 Galilee ‘Repent’  Matt. 4:17; Mark 1:15
John: Jesus talks to 3 disciples before Cana; Matthew has Peter & Andrew follow now
James and John c. 27 Galilee ‘sons of Zebedee’ Matt. 4:21
Jesus fills nets – fish c. 27 Galilee ‘let down your nets’  Luke 5:4
Jesus teaches c. 27 Capernaum ‘Sabbath… in synagogue’
Jesus casts out a devil c. 27 Capernaum ‘Let us alone…Jesus’ Mark 1:24
‘He ministered to many… devils came out of many, ‘Christ the Son of God’ Luke 4:41
Jesus went preaching c. 27 Galilee ‘Gospel & healing…’ Matt. 4:23
Jesus – Matthew Levi c. 27 Capernaum Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27; Matt 9:9
Jesus goes to Judea c. 27 Jerusalem Heals man by pool; then Temple
Disciples are with Jesus c. 27 Judea Mark 3:7
Multitudes came to hear Him Judea ‘heard Great things’ Mark 3:8
Jesus ordains – twelve c. 27 Judea ‘on mountain’ Mark 3:14
Simon Peter; James and John, sons of thunder; Andrew; Philip; Bartholomew; Matthew; Thomas; James son of Alphaeus; Thaddaeus; Simon the Canaanite; Judas Iscariot
Sermon on the Mount c. 27 Galilee ‘Blessed are….’  Matt. 5
Jesus raises the dead c. 27 Nain ‘Widow’s son…’ Luke 7:11-
John the Baptist c. 27 Prison ‘sends 2 disciples to Jesus’
Mary Magdalene c. 27 Galilee ‘healed of evil spirits’ Luke 8:2
Parable of Sower c. 27 Galilee Matt. 13; Mark 4; Luke 8
Jesus raises the dead c. 27 Gaulanitis Ruler Jairus’ daughter Matt.9
Third Galilee tour c. 28 Galilee ‘about all the cities & villages’
Twelve disciples c. 28 Palestine ‘they went out and preached’
Herodias left Philip and married his step-brother Herod Antipas – Governor of Galilee
John the Baptist killed c. 28 Judea Herod beheads John; Mark 6
Jesus goes to desert c. 28 Galilee John’s mom Elizabeth-Mary’ sis
Jesus feeds 5000+ c. 28 Galilee ‘5000 men… + women’ & kids
Jesus walks on water c. 28 Sea Galilee Sea of Tiberias; Matt. 14:25
Scribes and Pharisees c. 28 Palestine ‘Ye hypocrites..’ Matt 15; Mark 7
Preaches in Phoenicia c. 28 Tyre / Sidon ‘cast out devil’  Mark 7:26
Heals many sicknesses c. 28 Decapolis ‘lame, blind, deaf’ Mt 15; Mark 7
Feeding miracle #2 c. 28 Galilee ‘4000 men, besides women…’
John declares In Caesarea Philippi ‘You are Christ, Son of God’
Jesus tells of His death c. 28 He instructs: ‘take of cross and follow Me’
Peter, James & John c. 28 Mountain ‘Transfigured… Moses & Elijah’
Many reject/leave Him c. 28 He declares He is the Son of God   John 6:66M

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Chronology of Jesus Christ and related Events
Name / Event Date Place Notes:
Feast of Tabernacles c. 28 Jerusalem ‘Jews sought to kill Him’ John 7
Feast of Tabernacles c. 28 Jerusalem ‘He went up to Feast in secret’
Pharisees test Jesus c. 28 Jerusalem ‘go and sin no more’ John 8:11
Leaves Galilee c. 28 Galilee ‘to go to Jerusalem’ Luke 9:51
Go thru Samaria c. 28 Samaria ‘sent messengers’ Luke 9:52
Appointed the seventy c. 28 Samaria ‘Sent them by two’ Luke 10:1
Parable of the Good Samarian Samaria? ‘Love your neighbor’ Luke 10:25-
Mary and Martha c. 28 Perea ‘Mary sat at Jesus feet’ Luke 10
Feast of Dedication c. 28 Jerusalem ‘Winter…temple’ John 10:22-
Withdrew to Bethany c. 28 Bethany ‘he escaped…’  John 10:39
Teaching in villages C 28. Judea ‘journeying towards Jerusalem’
Jesus raises Lazarus c. 28 Bethany ‘Lazarus, come forth’ John 11:43
Goes to Ephraim c. 28 Ephraim ‘walked no more openly’ John11
Blind Bartimeus c. 28 Jericho ‘Jesus.. have mercy on me’
Passover near c. 29 Bethany ‘Six days before Passover’
Mary anoints His feet c. 29 Bethany ‘wipes His feet with her hair’
Rides donkey coat into Jerusalem fulfills Zechariah 9:9; Matt. 21; Mark 11; John 12
Palm branches c. 29 Jerusalem ‘Hosanna…King comes…’ John 12
Cleanse Temple again c. 29 Jerusalem ‘overthrew the tables…’ Mt. 21
Confronts Pharisees c. 29 Jerusalem ‘Woe unto you…’ Matt. 23
Sacrificial offering c. 29 Treasury ‘Widow… two mites’ Luke 21:2
End of the World signs c. 29 Mt. Olives Matt. 24; Mark 13; Luke 21
2 days until Passover c. 29 ‘Feast of Passover… Son of Man… to be crucified’
Jesus anointed c. 29 Bethany ‘alabaster box… head’ Matt.26
Judas Iscariot to priests c. 29 Judea ’30 pieces silver’ Zech. 11:12
First day of Passover c. 29 ‘Feast of unleavened bread’ Exo. 12:8
Upper Room – Mark 14 c. 29 Jerusalem ‘prepare the Passover’ Luke 22
Satan enters Judas c. 29 ‘betrayed… do it quickly’  John 13:27
Lord’s Supper c. 29 Upper room ‘Jesus took bread… the cup’
Washes disciples feet c. 29 Upper room John 13
Warns the disciples c. 29 ‘Abide in Me… Comforter coming… tribulation’
Jesus prays to Father c. 29 ‘that they may become one…’  John 17
Garden of Gethsemane c. 29 Peter, James & John – fall asleep as He prays
Chief priests & Judas c. 29 ‘multitude with swords…’ come to get Christ
Jesus says put away swords; if I wanted could call ‘legions of angels’ – Matt. 26:53
Disciples ‘forsook Him’  Mat.26:56 ‘they all forsook Him and fled’ Mark 14:50
They bound Jesus c. 29 Annas’ house ‘…sent Him to Caiaphas’ John 18

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Chronology of Jesus Christ Death
Name / Event Date Place Notes:
Brought to High Priest c. 29 Jerusalem ‘Caiaphas …high priest palace’
The Sanhedrin c. 29 Jerusalem ‘false witness…’  Matt. 26:59
Jesus did not answer c. 29 silent… ‘lamb before slaughter’ Isa. 53:7; Mark 14
They mocked Jesus c. 29 Isa. 50:6 ‘mocked Him’  Luke 22:63
They spit on His face c. 29 Isa. 50:6 ‘spit in His face’ Matt. 26:67
Beat Him on Face c. 29 Isa. 50:6 ‘smote His face’ Luke 22:64
Peter denies Him 3 x c. 29 Matt. 26:34 ‘deny Me thrice’ Matt. 26:75
Chief priests ‘delivered’ Him to Pontius Pilate Matt. 27:2; Mark 15:1;
Judas repents – cast 30 silver coins before Priest – Zech.11:12; Judas – hanged himself
Gov. Pilate questions c. 29 ‘Are You the King of the Jews?’ – Matt. 27:11
Gov. Pilate questions Judgment Hall – John 18 ‘Are You the Christ’ Luke 22:67
Jesus: ‘everyone that is of the Truth hears My words.’ Pilate: ‘What is truth?’ John 18
Pilate tell Jews c. 29 ‘I find no fault in Him’  Luke 23:4
Pilate sees Jesus is a ‘Galilean’   & sends Him to ‘Herod’s jurisdiction’  Luke 23:7
Gov. Herod Antipas c. 29 Jerusalem ‘exceeding glad’ – judge; Luke23
Mocked again c. 29 Isa. 50:6 ‘mocked Him’  Luke 23:11
For Passover Herod in c. 29 Jerusalem Sent back to Pilate; Luke 23:11
Feast tradition Release prisoner Matt. 27:15- Give us ‘Barabbas and kill Jesus’
Before Gov. Pilate c. 29 Luke 23:21 ‘Crucify Him, Crucify Him…’
Releases robber/murder; John 18:40/Mark 15:7 ‘beats Jesus’ Isaiah 50:6
Soldiers take Jesus c. 29 ‘they strip Him and put on a scarlet robe’
Soldiers mocked Him and put a ‘crown of thorns’ upon His head; Matt. 27:29
‘appearance disfigured’  Isa. 52:14 Psa. 22:17 ‘beaten beyond human likeness’
Soldiers spit upon Him, beat Him and ‘led Him away to crucify Him’ – Isaiah 53:4,7
Simon of Cyrene was ‘compelled to bear His cross’ Matt. 27:32; Mark 15:21
‘Place of a skull’ – 3rd  hour Golgotha Mt. 27:33; Mk 15:22-; John 19
‘They pierced My hands and feet’ 9AM Psalms 22:16; John 20:27
‘They crucified Him, and cast lots for His garments’ Mt. 27; Mk. 15; Psalms 22:18
‘JESUS of Nazareth – The King of the Jews’  John 19 ‘Greek, Latin, Hebrew’ Luke 23
‘with Him they crucify two thieves’ – Mark 15:27 with ‘transgressors’ Isa. 53:12
‘Save Yourself… If you are the Son of God’ – Mt.27 Psalms 22:6-8
‘Filed a sponge with vinegar… put to His mouth’ Psalms 22:21; John 19:29
One thief: ‘we deserve what we get, but He is innocent… remember me when You come into Your kingdom.’ And Jesus said, ‘Today you will be with Me in Paradise.’
3 Mary’s (His mother + 2);  to Mary & John: ‘behold your son… your mother’ John 19
‘Eli, Eli (My God…) forsaken Me Friday; Noon Psalms 22:1; Mark 15:34
‘Father, into Your hands I commit My Spirit’ ‘Gave up the Ghost’ – Luke 23
‘Sun was darkened… soldier came to break His legs …but saw He was dead… so one soldier pierced His side… blood & water flow…’  Psa. 34:20; Zech. 12:10; John 19:31-

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Chronology of the Resurrection and Ascension of Jesus
Name / Event Date Place Notes:
Herod died 4 BC; Jesus was born 5BC;  about 30 began ministry + 3 years = 29 AD; also

Passover is Nisan 14 (Leviticus 23:5); ministry 3 years; Herod began Temple in 19 BC + 46 years (John 2:19) = 27 AD; 14 Nisan on Thurs. in 30 AD; some compute same 29 AD.

‘The vail of the Temple was…’ Jerusalem ‘torn in two’  Matt. 27:51
‘Earthquake…’ Centurion says… Mark 15:39 ‘truly this was the Son of God’
Joseph of Arimathea went to Pilate Jerusalem asked for Jesus body Luke 23:52
‘New tomb hewn out in the rock’ Matt. 27:57 ‘with the rich in death’ Isa. 53:9
Buried before the  Sabbath Sepulcher Before sunset    John 19:31
He descended into grave (Hades – Apostles Creed) & Paradise (Luke 23:43); Eph. 4:9
Priests to Pilate – guard grave  Sat. 4/16/29 ‘Next day…‘ Matt. 27:62
‘Sealed Sepulcher with stone…’ Saturday ‘set a watch’ Matt. 27:66-
‘End of Sabbath… first day of week’ Sunday Women came to anoint’ Mark16
Resurrection ‘the THIRD DAY’ Matt. 27:63, 28:1-; Mark 16; Luke 24; John 20; Psa. 16:10
Earthquake; ‘angel rolled stone…’ Matt. 28:2- guards feared as dead men
Angel said to Mary Magdalene and women  Mark16 ‘fear not… Jesus risen’ Mt.28:7
Angel to women c. 29 Jerusalem ‘tell disciples… going to Galilee’
Luke has 2 angels declaring Lu 24:4 Sepulcher ‘He is risen… third day’
Mary Magdalene ‘weeping outside sepulcher’ Jesus appears, ‘Mary…’
The women ‘returned from the sepulcher and told all these things to the 11’ Luke 24:9
Peter ran to the grave c. 29 Sepulcher ‘he beheld the linen clothes’
Jesus appeared (1) Mary M.; (2) women; (3) Peter Luke 24:34; 1Cor. 15:5
Priests bribe with much ‘money… soldiers… say ‘he was stole by disciples’ Matt. 28:12
Road to Emmaus: Jesus appears (4) Cleopas & another, ‘expounded …the Scriptures’
The two disciples return to ‘Jerusalem to the eleven gathered together’ Luke 24:33
Jesus appears ‘in the midst’ (5) 10 disciples John 20:24; (6) appears ‘8 days later’ Sun.
Sea of Tiberias – (7) appears to 7 fishing; (8) appears to 11 disciples on Mount. (Mt. 28)
Jesus: ‘…Go forth and teach all nations, baptizing them… F, S & HS’ Matt. 28:19
‘…things …fulfilled… law & prophets & psalms… repentance & forgiveness… promise…’
‘You shall receive power… Holy Ghost… shall be witnesses …to ends of earth’ Acts 1:8
 Jesus (9) appears to 500, 1 Cor. 15:6;  (10) to His brother James (1 Cor. 15:7)
(11) ‘they watched Him ascend into heaven’  (Mt. Olivet; Bethany) Luke 24; Psa.68:18
Josephus (37-100 AD) Antiquities of the Jews:  “About this time there lived Jesus, a wise man; if it be lawful to call him a man.  For he was one who did surprising feats and was a teacher of such people as accept the truth gladly. He won over many Jews and many Greeks. [He was the Christ (Greek Version)]. When Pilate, upon hearing him accused by men of the highest standing amongst us (Jews), had condemned him to be crucified, those who had in the first place come to love him did not give up their affection for him.  [On the third day he appeared to them restored to life, for the prophets of God had prophesied these and countless other marvelous things about him (G.V.)]. Tribe of Christians, called after him, still exists.” Arabic Ver. deviates slightly.

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Chronology and Acts of the Apostles
Name / Event Date Place Notes:
2 angels as men in white: ‘Jesus… taken up into heaven, shall return likewise’ Acts 1:11
‘Lord is coming… His feet will stand on the Mt. of Olives, east of Jerusalem’  Zech. 14
Apostles with the 120 c. 29 Jerusalem ‘upper room’  Acts 1:15
Matthias replaces Judas Jerusalem ‘lot fell upon Matthias’ Acts 1:26
Day of Pentecost (Sunday 6/5/29) Pentēkostē –‘50th’ Feast of Weeks, Exo. 34:22; Dt. 16:10
‘All filled with the Holy Ghost’ Upper room Acts 2:4; 1:4,8; Luke 24:49
Peter addresses crowd Acts 2 ‘Joel’ prophecy this ‘in the last days…’ Joel 2:28
‘it shall come to pass… I will pour out My Spirit… before the day of the Lord’ Acts 2
Peter continues: ‘Repent and be baptized… for forgiveness… receive the Holy Spirit.’
Peter and John c. 30 Temple Healed lame man; Acts 3:11
Barnabas with others sold things and gave to all ‘all things in common’ Acts 4:32
Ananias & Sapphira c. 30 Jerusalem Died due to lies; Acts 5:1-11
Peter to priests and Sadducees ‘We ought to obey God before men’ Acts 5:29
Disciples/deacons appointed Jerusalem Stephen, Philip + 4;  Acts 6:5
Stephen ‘stoned’ killed   c.32-35AD Preaches Jews history & Jesus (Saul there) Acts 7
Saul (Paul) student/Pharisee of Gamaliel (grandson of Hillel the Elder) Acts 22:3; 23:6
Philip baptizes many c.32-35 Samaria Preaching ‘kingdom of God’ 8:11
Peter answers Simon (sorcerer) Samaria ‘Repent… lest bitterness…’ 8:22-
Philip and Eunuch c. 36 Near Gaza ‘Jesus Christ is Son of God’
Philip caught away after baptize Azotus ‘Lord’ carried Philip  Acts 8:39
Emperor Tiberius Dies Mar. 37 Italy Caligula is his newphew
Caligula (Gaius J.C. A.G) Mar. 37 Rome Emperor of Rome; dies Jan. 41
Herod Agrippa I 37 Palestine Reigns from 37 to 44 AD
Conversion of Saul c.34-37 Damascus (12) Jesus appears to Paul; Acts9
Paul goes to Arabia & back to Damascus ‘three years’  Gal. 1:17-18
Herod Antipas dies 39 Gaul Agrippa: king of Roman Province
Paul sees James c. 40 Jerusalem Gal. 1:19
Barnabas welcomes Saul (Paul) Jerusalem Apostles; Acts 9:27
Peter raises Tabitha c. 40 Joppa ‘died… Tabitha arise’ Acts 9:40
First called ‘Christians’ c. 40 Antioch Acts 11:20,26
Emperor Caligula dies 1/24/41 Rome Julius Caesar’s great-grandson
Emperor Claudius 41 Rome He was Caligula’s uncle
Barnabas goes to Paul c. 41 Tarsus ‘whole year’ Acts 11:26
Barnabas & Paul c. 42 Antioch ‘taught many…’ Acts 11:26
James killed w/ sword 44 Judea by Herod Agrippa; Acts 12:2
Rome invades Britain 43 (3rd Roman invasion) Claudius lands after troops
Peter put in prison 44 Angel frees him before Herod can kill him
Angel strikes Herod 44 Caesarea Dies ‘eaten of worms’ Acts 12:23
Book of James c. 44-48 Matt. 13:55 James step-brother – Jesus Mk6

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Chronology and Acts of the Apostles
Name / Event Date Place Notes:
Paul the Apostle 45 Antioch ‘Barnabas & Saul… called/sent’
‘In the church at Antioch were certain prophets and teachers: Barnabas… Lucius… Saul (Paul).  As the ministered to the Lord and fasted, the Holy Spirit said, ‘separate to Me..’
Philo the Jew dies 45-50 Alexandria Philosopher and Historian
Paul’s First missionary journey c. 45-48 John was with them (Acts 13:5)
Antioch to Seleucia to Cyprus to Paphos to Perga (at that time John left to Jerusalem)
Antioch in Pisidia  Acts 13:14 Taught in the synagogue on the Sabbath day
Expelled; leave to c. 46 Iconium Acts 13:51
City divided in belief c. 46 Sought to stone them… fled to Lycaonia; Acts 14
Jews almost killed Paul c. 46 Lystra area ‘stoned Paul… supposed dead’
‘Returned to Lystra, Iconium and Antioch strengthening …disciples, exhorting them to continue in the faith; saying ‘we through many tribulations enter the kingdom of God.’ So …they had appointed elders in every church and prayed w/fasting… ’ Acts 14
Pisidia to Pamphylia to Perga to Attalia and back to Antioch, Syria about c. 48 AD
Council of Jerusalem c. 50 Acts 15 Argued over ‘circumcision’ law
Peter: ‘God, who knows the hearts… giving them the Holy Ghost, even as He did to us; put no difference between us (Jew) and them (Gentile), purifying hearts by faith.’
James, Peter and John to Jews Acts 15 Paul & Barnabas to Gentiles
Sent Barsabas and Silas with Paul Acts 15:22 Back to Antioch
Paul’s Second missionary journey c. 50-54 Revisits the Churches
Dispute: Paul took Silas and went one way and Barnabas took John Mark to Cyprus
Antioch to Asia Minor c. 50 ‘Went through Syria and Cilicia’   Acts 15:41
Met Timothy c. 51 Traveling to Derbe and Lystra
Phrygia and Galatia c. 51 Mysia when Holy Spirit gave Paul vision Acts 16:9
Neapolis and Philippi c. 51 City of Macedonia – met Lydia  Acts 16:14
Seized and Jailed c. 51 Philippi Paul & Silas – prayed and sang
God caused earthquake; Paul stops jailer from suicide and tells them gospel
Journeyed to Thessalonica Jason’s house Persecuted and go to Berea
Timothy and Silas stay c. 52 Berea Paul leaves for his safety
Paul waited for them c. 52 Athens Preached in midst of Mars Hill
Aquila and Priscilla of Italy Corinth Claudius expels Jews from Rome
Justus and Crispus c. 52 Corinth Believe and are baptized  Acts18
Paul, Silas, Timothy 18 months in Corinth Acts 18:11; 1 Thessalonians
Herod Agrippa II c. 53 & 55 Nero made him king over parts of Palestine
Paul writes letters c. 53 1 & 2 Thessalonians ‘ye became followers of us’
Sailed into Syria c. 53 Ephesus to Caesarea back to Antioch
Emperor Claudius dies Oct.54 Rome Nero Caesar become Emperor
Paul – Galatians  c. 55-57 ‘Paul, an apostle, sent …by Jesus Christ …to Galatia’
Paul begins Third Missionary Journey  c. 54-56 This time taking John Mark

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Chronology and Acts of the Apostles
Name / Event Date Place Notes:
Paul’s Third missionary journey Antioch, Syria c.55 Paul, John revisit churches
Tarsus (Paul’s hometown), Galatia & Asia Minor = Derbe, Iconium, Antioch, Ephesus
Apollos       (Acts 18:24) c. 55 Corinth of Alexandria; wise in Scriptures
Spoke in tongues after Baptism Ephesus ‘Received Holy Ghost?’ Acts 19:2
Paul 2 years teaching at the ‘school of Tyrannus’ in Ephesus; Acts 19:9-10; 1 Cor. 16:8
Paul, after instructing the disciples at Ephesus and writing letter(s) to Macedonia
Paul – 1st  Corinthians c. 57 Ephesus Paul & Sosthenes 1 Cor. 1:1
Paul travels    Acts 20:1 c.57 Troas to Neapolis and Philippi in Macedonia
Paul – 2nd Corinthians c. 57 Macedonia Paul & Timothy 2 Cor. 1:1
Paul – wrote Romans; c. 57-58, though some say could have been decade earlier
3 months: Philippi, Thessaionica, Berea, Corith, back – Achaia/Macedonia Acts 20:3
Paul, Sopater of Berea, Artistarchus and Secundus of Thessaionica, and Gaius of Derbe, and Timothy, and Tychicus and Trophimus of Asia met in Troas – Acts 20:4
Paul:  Troas, Assos, Mitylene, Chios, Samos, Trogyllium, Miletus  (Acts 20:6-15)
Paul passed Ephesus to make it to Jerusalem by Pentecost – Acts 20:16
Paul instructed the elders then sailed to Coos, Rhodes and Patara  – Acts 21:1
Sailed across Mediterranean Sea below Cyprus and landed at Tyre, Syria – Acts 21:3
Visited brethren c. 58 Ptolemais One day – Acts 21:7
Philip’s home c. 58 Caesarea Agabus prophecies to Paul  vs.10
Paul: ‘I am ready not only to be bound, but also to die in Jerusalem’ – Acts 21:13
Met the Brethren c. 58 Jerusalem Paul, James & elders   Acts 21:18
Paul seized in the Temple at Jerusalem – Acts 21:30       Roman Captain and guards save and arrest him before the Jews could kill him.  He tells them his history, including that he studied Hebrew and the Scriptures ‘at the feet of Gamaliel’ (one of the most renown rabbis and teachers) and how he consented to Stephens death & persecuted people of ‘the way’ Christians, until converted by ‘Jesus’ on road to Damascus = Acts22
Acts 22:26-23:1- Captain discovering Paul is a Roman citizen affords him due rights; Paul speaks before Jews and Romans, ‘I am a Pharisee, son of a Pharisee… of the hope and resurrection of the dead…’ the Jews plotted to kill him; Paul’s sister warns the Captain of plot and Paul is taken in the night to Caesarea by 470 soldiers (Acts 23:23)
Ananias the high priest c. 58 Caesarea Brings Jewish elders
Felix (governor) c. 58 Caesarea Tertullus lawyer against Paul
Felix’s wife Drusilla c. 58 Caesarea Listens to Paul’s gospel   A24:24
Paul jailed 2 years c. 60 Caesarea Felix hoped for bribe to release
Festus and Agrippa II c. 60 Caesarea Hoped to bring Paul to Jerusalem
Paul appealed – Rome c. 60 Caesarea ‘to Augustus’ for appeal  A25:25
King Agrippa to Paul; ‘you nearly persuade me to become a Christian’ – Acts 26:28
Paul put on a ship c. 60 Being to ‘sail to Italy’ come near Cyprus
Passing under Cyprus c. 60 Due to strong winds sailed to Lycia in Myra

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Below: Myra, southern Turkey

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/Myra_Tombs_Temples.jpg/640px-Myra_Tombs_Temples.jpg

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Chronology and Acts of the Apostles
Name / Event Date Place Notes:
Emperor Nero age 22 59 Orders his mother Agrippina to be assassinated
Paul voyage to Rome c60-61 Acts 27 & 28
Gospel of Matthew written c. 60; scholars vary 45 AD to 90 AD  — the fact the Gospels don’t mention Jewish Wars & Destruction of the Temple (66 & 70 AD) makes < 70AD
Gospel of Luke written c. 60 (58-65); Luke, a companion of Paul, also wrote Acts
Romans soldiers & Paul c. 60 Crete Lasea    Acts 27:8
Setting said to Italy c. 60 Ship caught in ‘Euroclydon… tempest’
Angel appeared to Paul c. 60 On ship ‘Fear not…’  Acts 27:24
14th night – crew about to flee; Paul tells all 276 have they will be saved – A 27:31-
Ship wrecked & crew survived washing ashore on Malta; stayed 3 months;  Acts 28
Land in Syracuse, Sicily then Puteoli, Italy; Three –Taverns; and Rome where jailed
Epistle to Philemon c. 61-62 Rome Meets Onesimus the slave
Letter to Colossians c. 61-62 Rome ‘Remember my bonds’ – Paul
Letter to Ephesians c. 63 Rome ‘ambassador in bonds’ – Paul
Letter to Philippians c. 60-63 Rome? Paul & Timothy send epistles
Gospel of Mark c. 57-66 ? ‘they went forth… everywhere’
Gospel of Luke c. 58-63 ? To Theophilus       Luke 1:3
Historian Josephus 62 Rome Jewish captive of Rome
Temple 63 Jerusalem Renovations completed
China about this time Buddhist monasteries established
Acts of the Apostle c. 63 ? Luke to Theophilus     Acts 1:1
First Epistle of Peter c.60-66 Egypt? Peter is Simon or Cephas
Second Epistle of Peter c.61-66 Babylon? ‘…obtained like precious faith’
Ist Timothy c.64-66 Rome Paul to Timothy
Letter to Titus c.64-66 ? ‘bring Zenas & Apollos’
2nd Timothy c.64-66 Rome ‘only Luke is with me’
Epistle to the Hebrews c. 64-66 Rome? Paul is most likely author
‘Bring Mark… Tychicus I sent to Ephesus… bring the books & parchments’  2Tim.4:13
Gospel of Matthew; author – ‘Levi’: Dates vary: Dakes – 37 AD; Barnes – 63;

Jamison, Fausset, Brown (JFB) date it c. 64 – 68;  Based on Matt. 24 – before- 68 AD

Emperor Nero Caesar 54-68 Rome Nero wicked like Caligula
Paul before Nero c.64-66 Rome A:27:24; 28:30 – Likely 64 AD
Burning of Rome July 64 Rome Tacitus records in The Annals:
“Now started the most terrible and destructive fire which Rome had ever experienced. It began in the Circus, where it adjoins the Palatine and Caelian hills. Breaking out in shops selling inflammable goods, and fanned by the wind, the conflagration instantly grew and swept the whole length of the Circus. Nero …returned to the city only when the fire was approaching the mansion… The flames could not be prevented from overwhelming the whole of the Palatine, including his palace. Of Rome’s fourteen districts only four remained intact.”

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Chronology and Ante-Nicene Christianity
Name / Event Date Place Notes:
After the fire Nero looked for a scapegoat.  He found it in the Christians.
Bishop Eusebius (c.330): Nero ordered Paul to be beheaded and Peter to be crucified. Tacitus’ book (c. 60-120), Annals (XV44): After Rome fire “Nero (falsely) accused as the culprits and punished with the utmost refinement of cruelty… (those)  commonly called Christians.  Christus, from whom their name is derived, was executed at the hands of procurator Pontius Pilate in the reign of Tiberius… Besides being put to death they were made to serve as objects of amusement… torn to death by dogs …crucified …set on fire to serve to illuminate the night… Nero was putting on a show in the circus… ’
Apostle Peter martyred c.64 Rome N. has Peter crucified head down
Apostle Paul martyred c. 64 Rome Nero has Paul beheaded
Plot to kill Nero found 65 Rome Several put to death
Seneca (forced suicide) 65 Nero’s advisor; Roman philosopher
Linus, bishop of Rome c. 65-66 Rome Noted by bishop Eusebius
Epistle of Jude c. 66-67 Jude – half-brother Jesus; Matt. 13:55
66-70 AD the Great Jewish Revolts against the Roman Empire – in Judea
Vespasian to Judea 67 Judea Nero orders him to lead legions
Nero commits suicide June 68 near Rome End of Julio-Claudian dynasty
Three Roman Emperors June 68 to about Dec 69:    Galba; Otho; Vitellius
Josephus Wars (book 6) For 7 years a prophet cried ‘Woe, woe, Jerusalem’ to 70 AD
Emperor Vespasian 69 Vespasian back to Rome; orders Titus to Judea
Titus; son of Vespasian 70 Jerusalem Prepares to siege Jerusalem
Flavius Josephus (eye witness historian writes in War of the Jews; VII: “Caesar gave orders that they should now demolish the entire city and temple, but should leave as many of the towers standing as were of the greatest eminency… This wall was spared; in order to afford a camp for such as were to lie in garrison… Titus Caesar lay at the siege of Jerusalem.”
Temple destroyed 70 Jerusalem Romans take slaves/Menorah etc
Romans killed > 1 million Jews and took almost 100,000 captive (including Josephus); Four (4) times in history Jews population cut in half (roughly): In the wilderness (Num. 14:27-30); After King David reigns to the end of Babylonian Exile; by the Romans; and of course about 6 million Jews kill by the German Nazis during World War II.
Christians fled to Pella 70 Pella Eusebius records this event
Romans looted Temple 70 Rome Carried Menorah to Rome
Colosseum / Coliseum 70 Rome Construction begins
About 20,000 Jewish slaves that Titus brought back to Rome labored on Colosseum
Jews flee to ‘Fortress’ 70 Masada Jews take Herod’s ‘Fortress’
Romans siege Masada    c.73 Masada X Legion & auxiliary units
Josephus records tragic events at Masada: Jews hold out against the much stronger Roman army until they build their siege equipment and massive dirt ramp leading up the mountain; they found 960 of the 967 Jews killed each other in suicide pact.

Europe2012 164.JPG

 

 

Europe2012 170.JPG(above: pictures from Roman Colosseum – posted history – taken 2012)

 

Europe2012 172.JPGColosseum

 

Masada

 

Arch of Titus and Relief panel below – taken by a servant in 2012

Europe2012 207.JPG

 

Europe2012 200.JPG

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Chronology and Ante-Nicene Christianity
Name / Event Date Place Notes:
Ignatius c. 73 Antioch Ignatius: bishop; author; teacher
At this time: Jews expel Christians from synagogues; another Jewish Diaspora begins
Slaves and immigrants Jews free/slaves to: Rome, Persia, Babylon, Arabia, Adiabene
Flavius Josephus c. 77 Rome writes: War of the Jews
Anacletus (Cletus) c.77-79 Rome Bishop of Rome
Mount Vesuvius Aug. 79 Pompeii Natural Disasters (2002) write:
“In 62 AD, nature offered a warning to the residents of …Vesuvius. A gigantic earthquake shook the area… wiping out villages and reducing …part of Pompeii and Herculaneum to rubble.  Despite this …the next 17 years, new temples, grandiose baths, taverns and theaters rose… August 24, A.D. 79 with a stupendous roar, Vesuvius woke… and erupted, sending incandescent ash skyward… Lightning flashed through this geyser of ash that blew outward… bombarding the countryside and the two cities… Pliny the Younger (records from ship) – ‘a cloud… was ascending… like a pine tree… to great height… sometimes bright and sometimes dark… we stood still in the midst of the most dangerous & dreadful scene’ – Pompeii remained buried under 25’ of ash and Herculaneum under 65’ of mud flow… until the mount erupted in 1631.’
Titus becomes Emperor June 79 Rome Son of Vespasian
 Colosseum 80 Rome Colosseum is completed
Domitian – Emperor Sept. 81 Rome Brother of Titus
Arch of Titus 82 Rome Victory arch completed
Notice panels on Arch (still in Rome today): shows Romans with Temple treasures
About this time Emperor Domitian has ordered Christian persecution
Romans in Britain 85 Britain Strongholds established
Clement (Phil. 4:3) 91 Rome Bishop; author; disciple of Paul
Council of Jamnia c.90-99 Israel Also: Jabneh; Yebna 1Mac.4:15
Council – rabbis (and Pharisees) at academy discuss Hebrew canon: 22 books -Josephus
Flavius Josephus c. 94 Rome? Antiquities of the Jews
Ignatius of Antioch c.95 Antioch Letters of Ignatius
Sanctus – Hymn c. 95 Churches Early hymn: ‘holy, holy, holy’
Writings of John: First John, 2 John, 3 John and Revelation: much debate on whether before or after Destruction of the Temple and thus dates range from c. 68 to c. 95 AD
Nerva Emperor Sept. 96 Rome Declared by Roman Senate
Timothy killed Apocryphal says ‘stoned’ by pagans in Macedonia c. 97
Evaristus c. 98 Rome Becomes bishop of Rome
Tacitus c. 98 Rome Publishes Life of Agricola
Emperor Caesar Trajan Jan. 98 Rome 13th Emperor of Roman Empire
Clement martyred c.100 Rome His letter appendix in codexes
Apostle John dies c. 100 Ephesus? Ends ‘Apostolic Age’

End Apostolic Age

The most reliable dates are used; i do not have the time or space in this work to show why some dates were historically and mathematically chosen. ‘C.’ is short for Latin circa or about; within a year or two.  Many sources are used including The Reese Chronological Bible (1977); Chronicle of the World (1989); Timeline Charts of the Western Church (1999); and more so information from works of: Schaff, Eusebius, and Durant; as well as hours of research into college texts and reputable websites.

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