The Third Temple will be rebuilt in Jerusalem. October 2004, about 1600 years after the Sanhedrin (‘Council’ of Rabbis) dissolved due to persecution and dispersion under the Roman Empire, and the execution of the High Priest Gamaliel VI c.425 AD under Emperor Theodosius II, the Sanhedrin was reestablished. This article will examine a brief history of the Jewish Temples; and provide an extensive Timeline of post-Second Temple events that affected Israel and the coming Third Temple.
Hebrew Midrash: “Seven things were contemplated by the Holy One, blessed be He, before creation: Torah, Repentance, Garden of Eden and Gehinnom (She’ol/Grave/Hell), Throne of Glory, Holy Temple and the Messiah’s identity (Pesachim 54).”
[Yet note: “In the beginning was the Word (Jesus the Messiah – Rev. 19:13) and the Word was with God… through Him all things were made… through Him and for Him (John 1:1-3; Col. 1:16).”
History of the Temples
Moses’ Tabernacle (Tent of Meeting – Exodus 33:7):
Built: c. 1312 BC (or 2448 years from Creation)
The Lord said to Moses (Moshe), “…Make a Sanctuary for Me… Make this Tabernacle and all its furnishings exactly like I will show you… and I will dwell among …the people of Israel and be their God (Exodus 25:8-9; 29:45).” “Anyone inquiring of the Lord would go to the tent of meeting outside the camp (Exo. 33:8).” The tent was made of acacia wood and its walls measured 45’ by 15’ (feet). And the tent itself was 150’ by 75’ (Exo. 38:9; a cubit ≈ 18 inches). The Lord God ‘filled Bezalel with intelligence, knowledge and craftsmanship by the Spirit of God (Exo. 35:31)’ to oversee the building. Freewill Offering: “Everyone who was willing and whose heart moved came …for the work of the tent of meeting… All who were willing, men and women, came and brought gold jewelry… as a wave offering to the Lord. Everyone who had blue, purple or scarlet yarn or fine linen, or goat hair, ram skins dyed red… brought them… offerings of silver or bronze were brought… and acacia word… Every skilled woman spun …yarn or fine linen… All the Israelites who were willing brought to the Lord freewill offerings for all the work the Lord through Moses had commanded them to do (Exodus 35:20-29).” The Israelites took the Tent with them as they traveled from Mount Sinai to Canaan. It was no longer used after Solomon built the First Temple.
Solomon’s Temple (First Temple): Solomon was a son of King David
First Temple: Construction began 957/832 BC* and was completed 825 BC.
Destruction: By Babylonians in 422 BC* (* Toldot am Olam; Rabbi Rottenberg).
Sources vary: Jewish (Hebrew) calendar 1 AD = 3761 years from Creation
Templeinstitute.org puts it dedicated at 950 BCE.
Chabad.org has temple completed in seven years in 827 BC.
Jewishvirtuallibrary.org has King David conquering Jerusalem in 1000 BC and the First Temple 960 BC and destruction at 586 BC. (They follow a single Chronological Reference book).
TheTruthSource.org following traditional calendar put David as King in 2892 (c. 868 BC and reigned 40 years until Solomon became King) and destruction of First Temple (3338 or 422BC).
Ancient.eu puts Babylon’s rule over the Assyrians at 605-549 BC; and Nebuchadnezzar II invading Egypt 601BC and Tyre 572BC; and the fall of Babylon at the hand of Cyrus of Persia and return of the Jews 539BC; and Alexander the Great at 323 BC.
James Ussher, in his Annals of the World (Chronicles) says: “3414 AM, 4124 JP, 590BC …Nebuchadnezzar came before the very walls of Jerusalem… 588 BC …The city was broken up and the Chaldeans entered it… the temple was destroyed toward the end of the 19th year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign (Jer. 52:12; 2 Kings 25:9). This was in the beginning of the first year of the 48th Olympiad… 424 years… from the time that Solomon laid the first stone…”
“In the four hundred and eightieth year after the Israelites came out of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month of Ziv, the second month, he began to build the temple of the LORD. The temple that King Solomon built for the LORD was sixty cubits (90’) long, twenty wide (30’) and thirty high (1 Kings 6:1-2).”
(Winged Lion from ‘Processional Way’ in Babylon)
Prophet Daniel: “Four great beasts came up from the sea… first was like a lion with eagle wings (Babylon)… second like a bear (Media/Persian)… third like a leopard which had on its back four wings (Greece – Alexander the Great and then his empire divided in fourths… and a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible (Roman Empire)… and there was another little horn coming out of these (the Antichrist)… (Daniel Chapter 7).”
(Above: Second Temple or Herod’s Temple)
Herod’s Temple (Second Temple):
Began: c.516 BC (some use 349 BC); Destroyed: 70 AD
The Second Temple was begun about 70 years after the first was destroyed. The Prophet Ezra speaks of the rebuilding and getting back sacred vessels (Ezra 5:14) at the time of King Darius.
Herod the Great (Herod I) was king of Judea under Roman control. He was a Jew who died 4 BC, yet, before his death enlarged and renewed the Temple. He also had Masada built.
70 AD: Destroyed by the Romans under Titus (below: from the Arch of Titus in Rome – Jewish slaves carrying away the Temple vessels for the Romans).
The Jewish leaders wrote the king, “…Because our fathers had angered the God of heaven, he gave them into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, the Chaldean, who destroyed this house and carried away the people to Babylonia. However, in the first year of Cyrus king of Babylon, Cyrus the king made a decree that this house of God should be rebuilt. And the gold and silver vessels of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar had taken out of the temple that was in Jerusalem and brought into the temple of Babylon, these Cyrus the king took out of the temple of Babylon, and they were delivered to one whose name was Sheshbazzar, whom he had made governor; 15 and he said to him, “Take these vessels, go and put them in the temple that is in Jerusalem, and let the house of God be rebuilt on its site.” Then this Sheshbazzar came and laid the foundations of the house of God that is in Jerusalem, and from that time until now it has been in building, and it is not yet finished.’ Therefore, if it seems good to the king, let search be made in the royal archives there in Babylon, to see whether a decree was issued by Cyrus the king for the rebuilding of this house of God in Jerusalem. And let the king send us his pleasure in this matter.” (Ezra chapter 5; Holy Bible and Tanakh)
Darius the king and searching the records found, “A record. In the first year of Cyrus the king, Cyrus the king issued a decree: Concerning the house of God at Jerusalem, let the house be rebuilt, the place where sacrifices were offered, and let its foundations be retained. Its height shall be sixty cubits (cubit ≈ 18 inches / 45 centimeters) and its breadth sixty cubits, with three layers of great stones and one layer of timber. Let the cost be paid from the royal treasury. And also let the gold and silver vessels of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar took out of the temple that is in Jerusalem and brought to Babylon, be restored and brought back to the temple that is in Jerusalem, each to its place. You shall put them in the house of God.” (Ezra chapter 6)
The Jews completed building in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king (Ezra 6:15). According to JewishEncyclopedia.com Darius was the “King of Persia from 521 to 485 BC, son of Hystaspes… Darius married Cyrus’ daughter… Jerusalem received a visit from the satrap of …Persian …Syria, Tatnai. (concerning) the activity of the Jews and the building of the Temple… The cost of building the Temple was paid out of the tribute-tax of Syria. He commanded the Jews to offer in the Temple a daily sacrifice for the welfare of the kingdom and for his sons. On Adar 3, (March 10), 515, in the sixth year of Darius, the Temple was completed (Ezra vi. 14). …In the book of Daniel… ‘Darius the Median’ appears as the son of Xerxes (ix. 1), successor to the Babylonian Belshazzar and predecessor of Cyrus (vi. 28)…”
(Except Christ Jesus was likely crucified 29 AD, born 4 BC during reign of Herod)
The First Century Historian and Jew under Roman control – Flavius Josephus wrote in great detail about the destruction of the Second Temple, during the Wars of the Jews in his Chronology of ‘the Jewish War’ Book VI. In part:
War 6.4.5 249-253
So Titus retired into the tower of Antonia, and resolved to storm the Temple the next day, early in the morning, with his whole army, and to encamp round about the Holy House; but, as for that House, God had for certain long ago doomed it to the fire; and now that fatal day was come, according to the revolution of the ages: it was the tenth day of the month Lous, [Av,] upon which it was formerly burnt by the king of Babylon; although these flames took their rise from the Jews themselves, and were occasioned by them; for upon Titus’s retiring, the seditious lay still for a little while, and then attacked the Romans again, when those that guarded the Holy House fought with those that quenched the fire that was burning in the inner court of the Temple; but these Romans put the Jews to flight, and proceeded as far as the Holy House itself.
At which time one of the soldiers, without staying for any orders, and without any concern or dread upon him at so great an undertaking, and being hurried on by a certain divine fury, snatched somewhat out of the materials that were on fire, and being lifted up by another soldier, he set fire to a golden window, through which there was a passage to the rooms that were round about the Holy House, on the north side of it. As the flames went upward the Jews made a great clamour, such as so mighty an affliction required, and ran together to prevent it; and now they spared not their lives any longer, nor suffered anything to restrain their force, since that Holy House was perishing, for whose sake it was that they kept such a guard upon it.
It took 3 Roman legions to siege and take Jerusalem. Josephus reported about 1,100,000 Jewish people were killed by the Romans in the siege of Jerusalem.
(Below: prayer at Western Wall; Muslim Dome of the Rock in background)
TIMELINE of Events that affected Israel
Day Six: The Lord God created and breathed life (soul) into Adam – the first man (Genesis 2:7).
Second Generation: Offerings from Cain and Abel (Gen. 4:3-).
Tenth Generation: Noah built an altar and offered burnt offerings (Gen. 5:20).
c. 2104 BC (Year 1656 – Toldot am Olam; Ussher’s ‘Annals of the World:’ agreed it was 1656 years from creation, but says that = 2348 BC; Sumerian Bible 2204 BC): The Flood and year of Methuselah’s death.
Twentieth Generation: Abraham offered Isaac on Moriah – the Lord Provided a Lamb (Gen. 22).
c. 1738 BC (or about 2023 years after Creation): Abram (Abraham) was called, at the age of 75, to journey to Canaan from Mesopotamia. Ussher states, “God called Abraham out of Ur, of the Chaldeans, to go into the land that He would show him (Gen. 15:7; Jos. 24:2; Acts 7:2-). Ur was located in Mesopotamia.
Moses built an altar to the Lord at the base of Mount Sinai (Exodus 24:4).
c. 1273 BC: Joshua crosses the Jordan River into the Promised Land and Israel begins to conquer the land of Canaan and Palestine.
Deuteronomy 29:27-30:2: “The anger of the Lord burned against that land… and the Lord uprooted them (the children of Israel) from their land in anger and in fury and… cast them into another land… remember the blessing and cursing Moses spoke when you are in all nations where the Lord your God has banished you; and you return to the Lord and obey Him with all your heart and soul… then the Lord your God will restore you from captivity…”
c.1312 BC: Moses led the building of the Tabernacle
c.1004 BC: King David took Jerusalem and brought the Ark of God (Covenant).
c. 930 (some use 830 BC): Solomon’s Temple was constructed – The First Temple (1 Kings 7:48-).
c. 586 (some use 422 BC): Babylonians destroy the First Temple; Jews go into exile.
c. 530 BC: Cyrus the Great, King of Persia, allows many Jews return from Babylon and began to rebuild the city and its walls.
c. 515 (some use 349 BC) Second Temple was complete.
c. 332 BC: Alexander the Great of Greece conquers the Land of Israel.
3rd Century BC: Seleucid Empire controls region.
c. 160 BC: Maccabean Jewish Revolt against Selicid, king of Syria, who controlled Jerusalem.
c. 63 BC: The Roman Empire annexes the land of Israel.
c. 37-4 BC: According to Josephus, Herod finished the Second Temple.
31 BC to 9 CE/AD: Hillel the Elder serves as Nasi (president or prince of the Sanhedrin).
6-15 AD: Ananus ben Seth was High Priest (‘Kohen Gadol’) of the Jewish Council (Sanhedrin)
18-36: Joseph Caiaphas (son-in-law of Ananus) became High Priest of the Sanhedrin.
29: Jesus foretold of the destruction of the Temple, saying “not one stone will be left… (Matthew 24:2).”
29 AD: Jesus Christ was mocked, accused and chosen to be crucified by the Jews – the ‘King of the Jews;’ although it was at the hands of the Romans.
30-50: Gamaliel the Elder served as Nasi; the apostle Paul was a Pharisee that learn directly from Gamaliel in Jerusalem (Acts 22:3). Rabban Gamaliel was a grandson of Hillel.
After the Jewish Wars with the Roman Empire and the destruction of the Temple, half of their people were either killed or taken as slaves. Nearly all of the remaining was dispersed throughout the world. Josephus reported 1.1 million Jews killed during the siege by the Romans; but about 1.5 million were killed during the Jewish Revolt (66-72 AD). This was 1 of 3 times the Jewish population was cut in half: first in the wilderness after leaving Egypt and the third at the hands of Nazi, Germany (and some by Russia) during World War II.
64: Herod’s work on Temple completed.
70: Titus (Emperor of Rome; 79-81) took Jerusalem. Over 1.1 million Jews were killed.
85: The Jewish Sanhedrin (Council) was moved to Jamnia (south of Jaffa and Tel Aviv; about 25 miles east of Jerusalem) during the siege on Jerusalem and after a brief time in Usha it went back to Jamnia. Approximately 85 AD the Council there approved the Old Testament canon or Tanakh. Although, Joseph before this date listed 22 books and IV Ezra had listed 24.
118: Nasi Gamaliel II died
132: Emperor Hadrian (117-138) issued an Edict (Law) against circumcision.
132-136: Bar Kochba Rebellion (Third Jewish Revolt) resulted in about 580,000 Jews killed.
304: Emperor Diocletian through laws (Edicts) allows the persecution of Christians and Jews; churches were burned and many killed.
312: Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius.
313: The Edict of Milan was issued granting Christians religious freedom.
325: Constantine called the Christian bishops to go to Nicene and put forth a Creed.
320-365: Hillel II served 45 years as Nasi.
375: After the death of his father, Valentinian, Western Roman Emperor Gratian (age 16), under the influence of Ambrose, began removing pagans altars and confiscated many of their priest’s possessions.
380: The Edict of Thessalonica issued by Emperors Theodosius I (65th Roman Emperor) and Gratian made Nicene Christianity the sole religion of the Roman Empire.
October 415: Roman Emperor Honorius issued an edict (law) that called for removal of pagan temples and sacrifices; and it included the disbanding of the Sanhedrin and did not allow for the succession or appointment by a new High Priest.
415: Jews expelled from Alexandria and their property seized. Synagogues where seized in Antioch.
c.425: Gamaliel VI died and was the last Nasi of the ancient Sanhedrin.
632: False prophet Muhammad died leaving a dozen wives, numerous children and oral Quran.
c. 690: Qubbat as-Sakhrah or Dome of the Rock was built on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
717: Certain Muslim rulers required Jews to wear a yellow cloth.
1012: Emperor Henry II of Germany expelled Jews from Mainz.
1165: Moses Maimonides, Hebrew teacher and codifier, prayed on the Temple Mount.
1190: The Jewish population in England was about 2,500. During the Crusades there was a tax on Jewish…… Certain Jews were being expelled, such as Jewish money lenders to the local Abby and the debt was cleared without payment due – and 57 Jews were said to be killed on Palm Sunday. Then in March, barons in York indebted to Jewish money lenders sought to follow the same means and over 150 Jews were killed – followed by riots, expulsions and hundreds more Jews killed in England.
1191: During the Third Crusade by King Philip, who sought to take Jerusalem from Saladin, debts to Jewish lenders were cancelled for any that joined the crusade or send their son or knight. The property of many Jews in France was confiscated.
1203: Flemish crusaders set fire to much of the Jewish quarter in Constantinople.
1205: Pope Innocent III issued a Papal Bull to king Philip II says that Jews were subject to perpetual servitude for killing Jesus and that their money lending for profit should be stopped.
1209: On order of Pope Innocent III’s Albigensian Crusade, 20,000 Christians and 200 Jews were killed and others forced to be baptized as Catholic Christians.
1301: Many Jews and Christians in Egypt were forcibly converted to Islam or killed.
1306: Philip the Fair confiscated the property of Jews to fund his wars, and then expelled about 100,000 Jews from France – thousands died in transition.
1315: Philip’s son Louis cancelled the decree of expulsion until 1322 when it was reinstated.
1347 to 1351: Black Death – the bubonic plague killed about 75 million Europeans.
1389: Pope Boniface IX sought to reissue the Bull of Pope Calixtus II, which protected Jews during the First Crusade, but it had little effect and hundreds of Jews were killed in Spain.
Between 1390 and 1415: As many as 200,000 Jews became Catholic in order to avoid death or persecution – were called Marranos (of pigs).
1436-55: Gutenberg built his movable type Printing Press and printed his Bible.
1450s: African slaves are being taken by other tribes and traded by ‘Christians’ and ‘Muslims.’
1453: Constantinople fail to the Muslim Turks.
1481: About 2,000 Jews and Christians were burned at the stake alive during the Spanish Catholic Inquisition.
1483: Jews were expelled from many cities including Warsaw and Portugal.
1492: The Italian Columbus discovers the Americas (for Spain) and corn/tobacco.
1492: King Ferdinand V, who had once promised protection to the Jews, ordered or allowed the razing of the Jewish Quarter in Grenada. Then March 31, by Edict of Expulsion (Alhambra Decree), Jews were expelled from Spain – of the 200,000 to 500,000, most lost their properties and tens of thousands died of starvation, disease and persecution trying to find homes and restore properties stolen from them. About 50,000 went to Turkey, tens of thousands to Portugal, and tens of thousands converted to Christianity to remain in Spain.
1496: Jews were expelled from various cities in Austria. At that time, after receiving 38,000 gold florins, Emperor Maximillian I decreed that the Jews “repeatedly insulted and desecrated the holy sacrament, tortured and killed Christian children and used their blood in rituals and cheated people (through money lending/usury)…”
1497: The Italian John Cabot discovers Newfoundland for King Henry VII of England.
1498: Jews were expelled by parts of Lithuania and forced to convert or lose their property.
1499: Jews were expelled from Verona, Italy and the Jewish bankers lost their debt holdings.
1500 – 1575: Tens of thousands of Jews (20,000 to 150,000) migrated to Poland. World population estimated to be 400 million.
1510: Jews were expelled from Naples, Italy; and African slaves brought to Haiti.
1511: About 200 Jewish books, including the Pentateuch, Babylonian Talmud and Jerusalem Talmud were printed in Venice, Italy by Bomberg Printing House (a non-Jew).
1513: Ponce de Leon of Spain is in Florida (America).
1516: Erasmus published the first Greek New Testament Bible.
October 31, 1517: Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-Five Theses to the Castle Church door in Wittenberg, Germany – cited as the beginning of the Reformation (through many, such as Wycliffe, had come before him as forerunners).
1521: Hernando Cortes conquered Mexico and the Spanish – much of Central America.
1522: In Germany, Luther translates a German New Testament Bible; in Spain, the Bible is printed in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Arabic and Spanish.
Persecutions of Jews and Christians continued for decades and for centuries.
1569: Jews were expelled by Pope Pius V from all Papal States (thousands died).
1570: The Duke of Florence, for favors from Pope Pius V, forced the Jews into Ghettos.
1571: Jews were expelled from parts of the Netherlands.
1577: Pope Gregory XIII ordered the conversion of thousands of Jews in Rome.
1598: The first Jewish wedding in Amsterdam was recorded.
1598: King Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes which granted Huguenots religious tolerance in Protestant towns for both French Catholics and Protestants. Paris being Catholic was excluded.
1614: Jews were forced out of Frankfurt, Germany.
1630: Pilgrims landed in Plymouth, Massachusetts, America and began a colony.
1648: In the Ukraine, the Cossacks raided Jewish communities and massacred up to 100,000.
1650: A Jew named Jacob opened the first coffee house in Oxford, England.
1650-1720: As many as 10,000 Jews had immigrated to North America.
1654: Sephardic Jews from Brazil settled in New Amsterdam (New York, America).
1656: In Muslim Persia, king Shah Abbas II ordered Jews to convert to Islam or be expelled.
1655-1660: Thousands of Jews were killed during Second Northern War between Sweden and Poland/Lithuania, the Hapsburgs, Denmark, Norway and Russia.
1685: King Louis XIV of France revoked the Edict of Nantes and issued the Edict of Fontainebleau which allowed the persecution of Huguenots throughout France. Many protestants fled to Great Britain and North America.
1700-1721: The Great Northern War continued between Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland versus Sweden. Jews were heavily taxed in all these nations and forced to fight. The World Jewish population at this time was about 2 million.
1742: About 35,000 Jews were expelled from parts of Russia.
1775: Pope Pius VI issued ‘Edict concerning the Jews’ which required a ‘yellow sign’ to be worn; required curfews (or executions) and the building of ghettos (settlements; slums), and forbid study of the Talmud.
1782: Joseph II of Austria issued an Edict of Religious Tolerance.
1783: Joseph II allowed Jews to live in ‘Royal cities;’ by 1787 over 80,000 Jews lived in Hungary.
1799: Napoleon Bonaparte of France issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man. Napoleon sieged Acre and issued that he “invites all the Jews of Asia and Africa to gather under his flag in order to re-establish the ancient Jerusalem…”
1800: About this time due to persecution, about 1/10th of the Jews in Germany had converted to Catholicism or Protestant Lutheran.
1802 to 1810: Approximately 50 of 405 Jewish families in Berlin, Germany converted.
1809: The London Society for promoting Christianity amongst the Jews (LSCJ)’ was founded; now it is CMJ (Church’s Ministry amongst Jewish people). In 1830, sent the ‘first’ protestant Bishop of Jerusalem.
1820 to 1880: “Second Wave of Jewish Immigration to America” – the Jewish population in the United States increased from 10,000 to 250,000. Before the outbreak of World War, approximately 250,000 German-Jews came to America.
1843: Karl Marx, ‘On the Jewish Question’ – Marx said, “You Jews… should work, as Germans, for the political emancipation of Germany… why should the German be interested in liberation of the Jew… the Christian state, by its very nature, is incapable of emancipating the Jew…”
1852: First Jewish Hospital in the U.S. “Jews Hospital of New York” – Mount Sinai Hospital.
c. 1853: Jerusalem: 8,000 Jews; 4,000 Muslims; 3500 Christians.
1861-1865: American Civil War.
1867: Sultan gave Jews the right to own land in Palestine and Asiatic Turkey.
1881: Samuel Kellogg, Presbyterian pastor and professor, wrote The Jewish Question in Europe in The British and Foreign Evangelical Review. Kellogg wrote about Jewish persecution from Pagan Rome to late 19th century Europe. Signs of the Times 2
1882 to 1903: the First Aliyah: ‘Zionist immigration to Palestine’ or Jewish settlements into Israel’s Promised Land – over 30,000 Jews immigrated to Ottoman Palestine (most left within a few years due to tensions and persecution). Aliyah (‘to ascend, or go up’): as in “who shall ascend the hill of the Lord? And who shall stand in His holy place (Psalm 24:3)?”
1883 to 1897: Niagara Bible Conferences (USA): Fundamentalism and pro-Zionist discussions on ‘Israel a nation.’ William Blackstone attended in 1878; that year he published ‘Jesus is Coming.’
1890 to 1920: During this period over 2 million Jews from Russia, Austria-Hungary and Romania came to America. The U.S. placed immigration quotas in 1924.
1890: Nathan Birnbaum coined the term ‘Zionism.’
1891: Thousands of Jews were expelled from Moscow.
1880s-90s: D.L. Moody’s Northfield Conferences promoted evangelism; and was pro-Zionist.
March 1891: Blackstone Memorial: Christian author and evangelist William Blackstone petitioned Pres. Harrison and other foreign leaders to create “a home for these wandering millions of Israel” in Palestine. His petition “Palestine for the Jews,” had 413 signatures including JP Morgan, JD Rockefeller, congressmen, and the future Pres. McKinley. Pres. Wilson (like Trump in 2018) was compared to King Cyrus the Great. Wilson later aided the efforts of Col. Edward House (Wilson’s Fourteen Points and League of Nations Commission) and Louis Brandeis (Chairman of Zionist Affairs, then Supreme Court Justice).
1897: First Zionist Congress/Conference: The roots of the World Zionist Organization from this meeting in Basel, Switzerland organized by Theodor Benyamin Herzl.
1898: Nicholas II Czar of Russia banned Jews from living in key Russian cities; over 7,000 Jews from Kiev fled.
1900: World Jewish Population was about 11.2 million; a little over 1 million lived in the USA and the total U.S. population was 76 million.
1902: Hebrew Immigrant and Society formed in the United States by Russian Jews.
1903 to 1908: About a half million (500,000) Jews fled Russia; more than 80% came to the USA.
1904 to 1914: Second Aliyah: about 35,000 Jews, mostly from Russia, settled in Palestine which was under Ottoman (Muslim) rule. Between 1902 and 1914, the World Zionist Organization reported that it started 29 settlements in Eretz Israel.
1912: The Reichstag (Lower Parliament House): 12 of 100 members were Jewish.
1913: The B’nai B’rith (Anti-Defamation League) was formed in Chicago, USA. At this time in Russia, Stalin was denouncing Zionism.
1914: US President Wilson vetoed an anti-immigration bill.
1914: World War I began – over 2% of the 65 million men who fought were Jews.
1915: Russia: Hebrew and Yiddish publications were banned.
1916: The Sykes-Picot Agreement: The Ottoman Empire was divided with France having control over Syria, Lebanon and part of Iraq; Russia over much of the Kurdish territories; and Britain receiving mandate over Central Mesopotamia (Iraq) and parts of Arabia and the Persian Gulf.
1916: Turkish Syrian Gov. Ahmed Pasha ban Jews from the Western Wall unless they paid 100,000 Francs. Pasha was assassinated by a US-Soviet group after having brought Genocide on his people.
1917: Britain seized control of Palestine from Ottoman Muslims. The Russian Revolution began during WWI; over 100,000 Jews were killed within 3 years. April, the United States declared war on Germany – tens of thousands of Jews became soldiers.
November 1917: Arthur Balfour, British Sec. of Foreign Affairs, sent Lord Walter Rothschild a letter stating that Britain would support the Jewish or Zionist cause. (By this time over 60,000 Jews serving in the Russian army were killed in war.)
1918: Poland and Lithuania became independent. Jewish population in Eretz Yisrael was 56,000.
December 1918: The League of Nations was established; it would lead to the ‘British Mandate’ in Palestine, and be dissolved into the United Nations after WWII (1945).
1919 to 1923: Third Aliyah: During the Russian Revolution, and due to post-World War I British occupation of Palestine, the Balfour Declaration and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, as many as 40,000 Jews travelled to Palestine.
1921: Palestinian Arabs attack Jews in Jaffa.
1924 to 1928: Fourth Aliyah: 80,000 Jews came to Palestine (most Polish; many from USSR).
1917 to 1940: From the date of the British occupation of Palestine, December 9, 1917, to the end of 1940, a total of 331,223 Jews entered the country, the yearly number varying between 61,854 in 1935 and 2,178 in 1928.
July 1922: The League of Nations gave Great Britain the Mandate for Palestine.
1921-1945: Adolf Hitler was Fuhrer of the Nazi Party. His Mein Kampf was published in 1925 and in 1933 he became Chancellor of Germany and in 1934 – (Leader) Führer of Germany.
1928: Of 491 seats in the Reichstag, the Nazi Party (National Socialist Worker’s Party – NSDAP) had only 12 seats. The Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) had 153 seats. This year the Muslim Brotherhood was founded in Egypt.
1929 to 1939: Fifth Aliyah: from the 1929 Palestine Riots to 1939 German invasion of Poland, over a quarter million (250,000 to 300,000) Jews immigrated or fled to Palestine.
1930: Of 577 Reichstag seats, the SPD lost 10 and held 143; the Communist Party of Germany had 77 and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) gained 95 seats in 2 years to 107. Otto Wels held power of the Socialist Democrat Party from 1919 to 1939.
1932: Of 584 Reichstag seats the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) received 11.7 million votes (33%) and 196 seats; the SDP only received 20% and 121 seats and the Communist Party 17% and 100 seats.
1925 to 1934: Paul von Hindenburg was president of the German Reich; in 1933 Adolf Hitler was made Chancellor and began to assume all power of Germany, including dissolving the Reichstag (Parliament) in 1934 and declaring himself Leader of the nation. Hindenburg died in August 1934 and Hitler gained supreme power through a German referendum.
1933: The first concentration camps were established after Hitler became Chancellor. The Reichstag was set on fire and The Reichstag Fire Decree gave Hitler sole dictatorship.
1935: Nuremberg Laws prohibited marriages between Jews and Germans.
1938: Synagogues was burned out in Austria and Germany. Jewish landholders and money lenders lost their properties and were sent to concentration camps. On Hitler’s order Jewish businesses and synagogues were destroyed.
1938: World Jewish Population was about 15.8 million; in the U.S. about 4.8 million – while the total population of the United States was 130 million.
September 1939: Germany invaded Czechoslovakia and Poland. Britain and France declared war on Germany. Hitler lied and broke the 1938 Munich Agreement. Jews were sent to Ghettos.
1940: Germany invaded Norway, Denmark, France, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg; and began raids on Britain. Thousands of Jews were shot or gassed in Polish Ghettos.
1941: Jews in Europe – 9 million: of these about half resided in Russia or Russian-occupied Poland. Total Jews in Nazi Germany were about 3.2 million.
1941: Germany invaded Greece, Yugoslavia and Russia. Jews were sent to concentration camps.
December 1941: The United States entered World War II after Japan bombed Pearl Harbor.
January 1942: German Wannsee Conference by Nazi and SS (Schutzstaffel) leaders came up with their “total solution of the Jewish question” – to eliminate all 11 million in Europe totally and create an Aryan master race: “the expulsion of the Jews from every sphere of life of the German people… from every living space.” Heydrich and Hfmann of the SS, with Muller and Eichmann of the Gestapo, lead and prepared the conference. The Conference was to administrate the moving of hundreds of thousands of Jews form Hungary, Romania and other controlled areas into death camps for extermination. (Minutes from the Conference attached)
1942: Over 1.5 million Jews had been murdered in death camps. Most asphyxiated by carbon monoxide.
1941 to 1944: About 2.7 million Jews were murdered in Death Camps and another 2.7 million outside of the camps.
(In fear Italy, the Pope and Catholic bishops bow to Hitler and Germany;
Also the Nazis and the Vatican’s Reserves increased from stolen gold.)
1943: The Germans were defeated in Stalingrad, Russia.
May 1944: Over 440,000 Jews were deported from Hungary to camps.
June 1944: The United States and UK with allies invaded Normandy, France and began to push back the Germans.
June 1944: The Auschwitz Report was published by 2 Jewish prisoners.
November 1944: US troops liberated Natzweiler concentration camp; while Himmler ordered the destruction of the Auschwitz Gas chambers and crematoria.
December 1944: The last gassings occurred at Hartheim.
January 1945: the evacuation and liberation of Auschwitz.
1945: The allies surrounded Berlin, Germany; April 30th Hitler committed suicide.
April 1945: Lutheran minister Dietrich Bonhoeffer was ordered to be killed/murdered in jail just a few weeks before the Germans surrendered (World War II). He would can recant his protest against the Nazis.
May 7, 1945: Germany surrendered (September 2, 1945 – Japan surrendered). Approximately 6,000,000 Jews were killed by Genocide (the Holocaust).
October 1945: The United Nations was founded.
November 29, 1947: The United Nations General Assembly voted 33 to 13, and 10 abstentions (+1 absent), in favor of Resolution 181 which declared that the Mandatory Power for Palestine would plan to “complete its evacuation of Palestine by August 1, 1948; recommends to the United Kingdom, as the mandatory Power for Palestine, and to all other Members of the United Nations the adoption and implementation, with regard to the future government of Palestine, of the Plan of Partition… not later than 1 August 1948. The armed forces of the mandatory Power shall be progressively withdrawn… Independent and Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem… boundaries of the Arab State, the Jewish State and the City of Jerusalem…”
November 1947 to May 1948: Arabs were attacking Jewish colonies and convoys.
May 14, 1948: General Sir Alan Cunningham left Haifa at end the British Mandate. Israel declared independence and David Ben-Gurion became the first Prime Minister and Chairman of the Provisional State for 3 days, when Chaim Weizmann became President of Israel. U.S. President Harry Truman declares recognition of Israel as a Nation.
May 14-15, 1948: Palestinian Arabs, with other Arab Muslim fighters, intensified their attacks on the Jews in Palestine. An air attack was launched on Tel Aviv.
May 15, 1948 to March 10, 1949: First Arab-Israeli War: Arab troops from Lebanon, Syria, Iraq and Egypt invaded Israel. British forces came from Transjordan in hopes to stop the conflict. Fighting continued and Israel forces pushed back defeated the Palestinian Arabs, Egyptian troops and took lands previously under Jordanian and Egyptian occupation; as well as the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The Arabs killed over 6,300 Jews (including 2,400 civilians); and in turn the Israelis killed 2 to 3 times that amount of Arabs. Over 650,000 Palestinians (half of the Arab population in the region) became displaced and fled from their homes.
February 1949: The Israel-Egypt Armistice Agreement was signed and set a border near what it was in the 1922 Mandate.
March 1949: Lebanon agreed to the armistice line in return for Israel withdrawing from 13 villages. Iraqi Arab forces withdrew from Israel.
April 1949: Jordan and Israel both agreed to withdraw forces and exchanged some land.
May 11, 1949: Israel was admitted to the United Nations.
July 1949: Syria withdrew forces and agreed to demilitarized zones.
December 1949: The UN established UNRWA for Palestinian refugees.
1950: Jordan takes administrative control of the West Bank.
1950 to 1960: Israel continues to answer Arab attacks and takes more land in the process. Muslim terrorist and armed forces from Jordan and bordering lands attack Israeli citizens, including murders, kidnapping and rape.
1953: Gemal Nasser leads a revolution in Egypt and overthrows the monarchy.
1956: Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal and shut off access to Israel’s port in Eilat.
1958: The Soviet Union (Russia) sides with Egypt and gives loans and weapons.
October 1959: Fatah (Palestinian National Liberation Movement) was founded in Kuwait by Yasser Arafat (head of General Union of Palestinian Students – GUPS; Al-Azhar University – Cairo, Egypt), Khalil al-Wazir (member of Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt), Salah Khalaf (1970 – founded Black September Org. – assassinated PM of Jordan) and Khaled Yashruti (head of GUPS in Beirut, Lebanon).
1961: Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) was founded – later formed ties with the PLO, but merged in 1967 with the Arab Nationalist Movement and the Young Avengers to form the PFLP.
1964: The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was founded in Cairo by Yasser Arafat, Mahmoud Abbas, Gamal Nasser and the Arab League. They issued the Palestinian National Charter which original text states: “We. The Palestinian Arab people, who waged fierce and continuous battles to safeguard its homeland… and offered… continuous caravans of immortal martyrs…. Vow… Palestine is an Arab homeland… Palestine …is indivisible… Jews of Palestinian origin are considered Palestinians if they are willing to live peacefully… Arab unity and the liberation of Palestine are two complementary goals… The Partitioning of Palestine in 1947 and the establishment of Israel are illegal and false…”
January 1965 to June 1967: Al Fatah conducts over 120 raids on Israelis.
September 1965: Third Arab Summit (Casablanca) discusses how to fight Israel.
May 28, 1967: Gamal Nasser before the Egyptian National Assembly threatens to destroy Israel, saying “God will surely help and urge us to restore the situation to what it was in 1948… but the time has come …to triumph.”
May 30, 1967: Jordan and Egypt sign a defense pact.
May 31: Iraq President Rahman – “The existence of Israel is an error which must be rectified.”
June 5-10, 1967: Hebrew year 5737, the Jews take the Temple Mount during the Six Day War. June 5 as Muslim Arabs lined up on Israel’s borders to attack, the Israeli Air Force launched a preempted attack against Egypt and then Jordan and Syria air force bases. They crush the Arabs offense and June 6 push back in Gaza, while capturing Ramallah and parts of Jerusalem. June 7 the UN calls for a cease-fire, but Egypt’s President Gamal Nasser (PLO – co-founder) turns it down. Fighting continues until a cease-fire with Egypt is agreed to June 8. Israeli forces take Hebron and fighting continued at Golan. June 10 after taking Masada, Syria agrees to a cease-fire. Israel gains the Gaza Strip, West Bank, Golan Heights and Sinai Peninsula.
For details on Six Day War:
(Israeli Soldiers at the Western Wall – June 1967)
1968: Jibril of PFLP formed the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC).
1972: Egyptian president Anwar Sadat expelled 20,000 Soviet troops to open peace talks with the United States.
1972: Palestinian terrorists of the Black September cell killed 2 members of the Israeli Olympic team at the Munich Olympics and demanded release of 234 Palestinians in jail. After a poorly handled police raid, the other 9 Israeli hostages were killed with 5 of the 8 terrorists.
October 6-25, 1973: Yom Kippur War: Egyptian and Syrian forces attacked Israel on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), the most holy Jewish day. The Muslim forces took much of the Sinai Peninsula and entered the Golan Heights. After a couple of weeks Israeli troops recaptured the Golan Heights and a cease-fire was agreed upon.
1974: Abu Nidal Organization (Fatah Revolutionary Council) formed after a split from the PLO.
1976 Supreme Court of Israel decision from President of the High Court, Aharon Barak: “The basic principle is that every Jew has the right to enter the Temple Mount, to pray there, and to have communion with his maker. This is part of the religious freedom of worship, it is part of the freedom of expression. However, as with every human right, it is not absolute, but a relative right… Indeed, in a case where there is near certainty that injury may be caused to the public interest if a person’s rights of religious worship and freedom of expression would be realized, it is possible to limit the rights of the person in order to uphold the public interest.”
September 1978 – March 1979: The Camp David Accords held in Washington D.C., USA, began between President Carter (US), PM Begin (Israel) and President Sadat (Egypt). The Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty was signed March 26, 1979; after which the US gave Israel about $50 billion in aid between 1979 and 2000; and Egypt $1.3+ billion a year (over $40 billion between 1979 and 2000).
March 1979: The Arab League (Al-Jāmiʿa Al-ʿArabīyah) of 21 nations voted to suspend Egypt’s membership. Egypt was not reinstated until 1989.
1981: Palestinian Islamic Jihad (Al Quds Brigades) was founded by members of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.
October 6, 1981: Muslim extremist assassinated Egyptian President Sadat during a military parade on the anniversary of the Yom Kippur War.
1982: Hezbollah (Party of Allah) was formed by Shia Muslims in Lebanon.
1987: Hamas, Sunni Islamists (Muslim), was founded during the First Intifada by Ahmed Yassin, Abdel al-Rantisi and Mahmoud al-Zahar, members of the Muslim Brotherhood.
1988: Al-Qaida (al-Qaeda; International Front for Fighting Jews and Crusaders; Islamic Army for the Liberation of Holy Sites) was founded by Osam Laden, Abdullah Azzam and Ayman al-Zawahiri. For more see: Top Islamic Terrorists Groups
December 1987 to 1993: First Intifada (Uprising) by Islamic fighters against Israel and the Christian nations of the West. Both Israelis and Arabs killed each other.
1993-1996: Oslo Accord (Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements) began – Arab Israeli Peace talks between Israeli Prime Minister Yizhak Rabin and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Mahmoud Abba, with U.S. Pres. Bill Clinton – little changed except the flow of money from the United States increased and promises for a Palestinian state; with the PLO formal recognition of the state (nation) of Israel. The talks took place in Washington, D.C. (1993) and Taba, Egypt (1995).
1994: Jordan and Israel sign a peace treaty.
September 1995: Israel PM Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Yasser Arafat sign agreement to transfer territory to the Palestinian National Authority.
November 1995: Jewish man assassinates Yitzhak Rabin in Tel Aviv; Shimon Peres became PM.
May 2000: Israel forces withdraw from southern Lebanon.
September 28, 2000: soon to be Israel’s Prime Minister, Ariel Sharon visited the Temple Mount in Jerusalem with hundreds of Israeli riot police; Palestinians protests his entrance to Al-Haram al-Shariff (Temple Mount). This started the Second Intifada (Arab Uprisings).
September 11, 2001: Al-Qaeda Islamic terrorists performed four coordinated attacks on the United States. Two planes hit and took down both Twin Towers of the World Trade Center and one struck the Pentagon; and another was brought down by passengers before hitting the Capitol or White House – 2,996 civilians were killed and more than 6,000 injured.
March-May 2002: After several Islamic terrorist attacks (including suicide bombings), Israel launches Operation Defensive Shield in the West Bank.
June 2002: Israel begins the barrier around the West Bank.
2002: There were at less 135 attacks by Arab Terrorist on Israeli citizens. Israel Security Agency revealed that 452 people were killed in Israel and 2,284 wounded in 2002 by terrorism.
2003: Israel began construction on its walls to separate Israel and Palestinian communities.
June 2003: Quartet: Road Map to Peace (USA, European Union, Russia and United Nations) was first proposed by US President Bush, they sought by Presidents and representatives from these four group urging an agreement between Israel and the Palestinian Authority on the two-state solution and security for both nations. Both sides said the other has not stopped terrorizing their people and country; nor could they agree on borders or how to give up land to the other.
October 13, 2004: 71 Jewish rabbis convened to reestablish the Sanhedrin. Rabbi Josef Elyashiv became the High Priest. Rabbi Yisrael Ariel, in 1967 was part of the Israelis who took the Western Wall; and in 1987 founded the Temple Institute (Machon HaMikdash), were they focus on preparations for the rebuilding of the Third Temple. Rabbi Baruch Kahane is the (2018) current Kohen Gadol (high priest) or leader (nasi) of the Sanhedrin. He is part of the Halacha Berurah Institute which was established by Rabbi Abraham Issac HaCohen Kook [below: passed away at age 80 (Psalm 90:10) in 2015].
September 2005: Israelis withdraw from Gaza.
Mid-2006: Second Lebanon War: Israel attacks Lebanon in response to Hezbollah attacks on Israel from Lebanon.
September 2007: Israeli Air Force destroyed a nuclear reactor in Syria.
November 2007: Annapolis Conference: PM Ehud Olmert of Israel met with President Mahmoud Abbas of the PLO and Palestinian Authority; and with President George Bush. The goal was again a “Road Map to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israel-Palestinian Conflict.” The United States invited 49 countries and international organizations… Attendees included members of the Arab League… (from 13 nations), the G-8 group… the U.N. Security Council… members of the Quartet… the Islamic Conference, and representatives of the IMF and the World Bank. Conclusion, lots of talk and money spent on politicians and Israel and the PLO got no closer to fulfilling any obligations of the Road Map.
December 2008: Israel invaded Gaza to prevent Hamas and terrorist strikes.
2009-2011: attacks and protests continued between Jews and Muslims.
October 2011: In a questionable trade Israel exchanged 1,027 prisoners (mostly Palestinians and Arab-Israelis) for one IDF soldier – Gilad Shalit – in a deal with Hamas brokered poorly by Germany and Egypt. On the released, 280 were sentenced to life in prison. Walid Anajas was sentenced to 36 life’s for his part in three bombings; and Nasir Yataima (29 life sentences) for planning an attacked that killed 30 and wounded 140.
November 2012: The General Assembly of the United Nations voted to give Palestine ‘Non-Member Observer State’ status. The vote was 138 for and 9 against (including of course Israel and the United States).
2013-2015: Talks and attacks continue.
2016 UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), 58 member Executive Board 200th Session, Item 25 ‘Occupied Palestine,’ as submitted by 7 Muslim nations and with a vote of 24-6, with 26 abstaining, to move the measure towards UN vote “calls on Israel, the occupying Power, to stop the obstruction of the immediate execution of …Hashemite restoration projects in and around Al-Aqsa Mosque/Al-Haram Al-Sharif… Deplores the military confrontations in and around the Gaza Strip… Strongly disapproves the ongoing Israeli illegal excavations, works, construction… that affect the integrity of the site…”
2016: The US agreed to a $ 38 billion military aid package with Israel (over 10 years).
December 2017: President Trump’s recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel; and the moving of the U.S. Embassy to Jerusalem, was another move towards the timing of the Third Temple. Asaf Fried of the United Temple Movement (UTM) called it ‘an enormous step in bringing the Temple.” After comparing Trump’s move to the ancient King Cyrus who enabled the building of the Second Temple; Fried said that ‘there have been amazing advances towards bringing the Temple…” Yakov Hayman, Chairman of the UTM sees the 2017 recognition of the capital comparable to the 1917 Balfour Declaration that called for ‘a national home for the Jewish people (Israel).’
December 2017, after US President Trump publicly recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and reaffirmed the embassy move, 128 states (versus 9) of the UN General Assembly voted to disavow Jerusalem as the capital of Israel saying that “any unilateral decision that seeks to alter the character and status of Jerusalem could seriously undermine current peace…” The UN see Jerusalem as the capital of both Israel and Palestine.
2018: 17.1 million Jews live in the United States (since about the 1990, about half the Jewish population in America married non-Jews; by 2010 about half of former Jews had become Atheists).
August 2018: Again the UN and Egypt attempt a long-term ceasefire for Israel and Hamas.
In 2009, only 64% of Israelis wanted the Temple rebuilt. By 2017, 68% wanted Jewish prayer on Temple Mount. Regardless of the percentages and wants of man; the (third) TEMPLE will be rebuilt; “the Wicked One will be revealed and sit in the Temple of God, displaying himself as God; then soon after “the Lord Jesus will kill the lawless one with the brightness of His coming (2 Thes. 2:3-8).”