Who should have control of Jerusalem and the Temple Mount? This is one of the most important religious, political, security and eschatological inquiries. Because it is such a political question with international security consequences it is most often dealt with in a secular legal way, and highly influenced by many with influential voices at the United Nations and by many that pose powerful militarily and terrorists threats. Because it is such a religious question, and so significant to eschatology (final world events; prophecy of end times), it must also be examined in a theological and historical manner.
Understanding these facts, then we must ask several questions: What are Jerusalem and the Temple Mount? What is the history of the location? Who takes precedent on the matter – God or mankind; the Holy Scriptures or the laws of man? Whose Scriptures are truth on this subject? What does God say concerning this matter? What does prophecy say will be the outcome? Because the history is of great importance, but also requires great length, it will be addressed last in timeline format. Whether a Christian or a Muslim, a secular politician or a religious leader, try to look beyond our differences and seek what is true – by history, logic and the Spirit. (This article is about 50 pages including 40+ pictures/maps)
What are Jerusalem and the Temple Mount?
Jerusalem: the word ‘Jerusalem’ specifically occurs more than 800 times in the Christian Bible; about 660 times in the Hebrew Bible [TaNaKh (Torah, Nevi’im, Ketuvim or Old Testament = ‘Teachings’ of the Law and History by Moses (Moshe); the ‘Prophets,’ and the ‘Writings.’] and zero times in the Quran (Koran). In the Muslim ‘Holy’ book the city of Jerusalem is referred to as the ‘Holy Land’ several times and the Al-Aqsa Mosque is mentioned.
Jerusalem: the word in Hebrew is Yerushalayim or יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, which means [Place (or Place/Location/City of Awe)] + Peace = Place/City of Peace. This PLACE has over 70 names (just as there are many names and titles given to Yahweh, Adonai Eloheinu) in the Scriptures.
Jerusalem: according to Hebrew Midrash (Bereishit Rabba 26, 10), “Avraham (Abraham) called the place ‘Yir’eh’ …Hashem Yir’eh.’ Shem called it ‘Shalem (in Latin – Salem).’ …The Holy One …I shall call it ‘Yerushalayim,’ as both of them called it: ‘Yir’eh Shalem’.” “This is a PLACE OF AWE (yir’a) and SERVICE OF GOD” – (Midrash Hagadol, Bereishit 22:14).
Temple Mount: “The Temple Mount refers to the elevated plaza above the Western Wall in Jerusalem that was the site of both of Judaism’s ancient temples. The site is also the third holiest in Islam (after Mecca and Medina) and has been a focal point of inter-religious tension for decades… Known in Hebrew as Har Habayit, is …said to be the site where Abraham (took)… his son Isaac to be sacrificed. The Mount is also the site of …Temple …built by King Solomon, destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 BCE. The second was built in the sixth century BCE and stood for nearly 600 years before it was destroyed and the Jewish people exiled in 70 CE by the Roman Empire…” https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/what-is-the-temple-mount/
(Muslims call Temple Mount Haram al-Sharif = the Noble Sanctuary)
Jerusalem, Temple Mount: located about 30 miles east of the Great Mediterranean Sea and 10 miles west of where the Jordan River meets the Salt Sea (Dead Sea).
Who’s say – God or mankind; what are the laws of man?
This should be an easy answer – of course, Almighty God, the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth, the King of Universe – His words are foremost and rule over the matter. Yet, in this world so many of our leaders are secular (worldly and non-religious); and then for those who are religious leaders, many are either ignorant on the matter or argue about what are the true Scriptures.
Without getting into the distractions of debating Who Created God? or does God exists; let us briefly look at what are both the primarily laws concerning Jerusalem and the Temple Mount. The political laws over Jerusalem has been controlled by wars and changes in governments from earliest civilizations, through the Canaanites, Israelites, Babylonians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arab (Muslim) Caliphates, Christian Kings, Ottoman Turks/Muslims and the United Nations.
Islamic Waqf or Wakf: This organized Muslim Interest for the Temple Mount or Haram esh-Sharif has managed the site for most of the time since the Muslims under Saladin took it from the Latin (Christian) Kingdom of Jerusalem (Crusader State) in 1187. The Wakf objects to Israel having any authority on Temple Mount.
United Nations, Resolution 181 (Nov. 1947); Future Government of Palestine: Part I; “The Mandate for Palestine (which begin 1922 by League of Nations after WWI) shall terminate… not later than August 1948. The armed forces of the mandatory Power shall be progressively withdrawn… Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem… shall come into existence… Existing rights in respect of Holy Places and religious buildings or sites shall not be denied or impaired… No act shall be permitted which may in any way impair their sacred character… The Governor of the City of Jerusalem shall have the right to determine whether the provisions of the Constitution of the State in relation to Holy Places… are being properly applied and respected…”
Constitution of the State of Israel (1948-1967; Section: Basic Laws; 3.2 and 3.7): “The ownership of Israel lands, being the lands in Israel of the State… shall not be transferred… Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel. Jerusalem is the seat of the President of the State, the Knesset (Parliament), the Government and the Supreme Court. The Holy Places shall be protected from desecration and any other violation and from anything likely to violate the freedom of access of the members of the different religions to the places sacred to them or their feelings towards those places… The Minister of Religious Affairs is charged with the implementation of this Law, and he may, after consultation with… representatives of the religions concerned and with the consent of the Minister of Justice make regulations…”
1976 Supreme Court of Israel decision from President of the High Court, Aharon Barak: “The basic principle is that every Jew has the right to enter the Temple Mount, to pray there, and to have communion with his maker. This is part of the religious freedom of worship, it is part of the freedom of expression. However, as with every human right, it is not absolute, but a relative right… Indeed, in a case where there is near certainty that injury may be caused to the public interest if a person’s rights of religious worship and freedom of expression would be realized, it is possible to limit the rights of the person in order to uphold the public interest.”
2016 UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), 58 member Executive Board 200th Session, Item 25 ‘Occupied Palestine,’ as submitted by 7 Muslim nations and with a vote of 24-6, with 26 abstaining, to move the measure towards UN vote “calls on Israel, the occupying Power, to stop the obstruction of the immediate execution of …Hashemite restoration projects in and around Al-Aqsa Mosque/Al-Haram Al-Sharif… Deplores the military confrontations in and around the Gaza Strip… Strongly disapproves the ongoing Israeli illegal excavations, works, construction… that affect the integrity of the site…”
December 2017, after US President Trump publicly recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and reaffirmed the embassy move, 128 states (versus 9) of the UN General Assembly voted to disavow Jerusalem as the capital of Israel saying that “any unilateral decision that seeks to alter the character and status of Jerusalem could seriously undermine current peace…”
Whose Scriptures are truth on this subject?
Whose Scriptures should be given preference: the Jews, the Christians or the Muslims? The Christian Holy Bible includes the Jewish Hebrew Bible (TaNaKh or Old Testament).
Time Comparison: The Jewish Holy Scriptures was passed down from Moses (about 1,300 BC) to Joshua (Joshua 8:30; 24:26), who gave them to the scribes and priests and certain kings of Judah. Other prophets added until about 400 BC. The Book of Enoch was written about 3,000BC, but was not entirely preserved. The Septuagint (the seventy) is a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible written completed about 150 BC. The Christian New Testament was written after the death and resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ (c.29 AD) and completed before 90 AD (most likely before the Temple was destroyed in 70AD). The Dead Sea Scrolls (over 900) were found after WWII and were written sometime between c.200 BC and c.70 AD. They confirmed the Purity or Incorruption of the Hebrew Holy Scriptures. The Quran was written about c.650.
“To Moses We [Allah] gave nine clear signs. Ask the Israelites how Moses first appeared amongst them… “We [Allah] have revealed the Qur’an with the truth, and with the truth it has come down. We have sent you [Muhammed] forth only to proclaim good news and to give warning.” Qur’an, 17:100-104
“And [remember] when Moses said to his people: ‘…O my people, enter the Holy Land which God has assigned unto you, and turn not back ignominiously, for then will ye be overthrown, to your own ruin.'” [Qur’an 5:20-21]
Qur’an explicitly refers to the return of the Jews to the Land of Israel before the Last Judgment – where it says: “And thereafter We [Allah] said to the Children of Israel: ‘Dwell securely in the Promised Land. And when the last warning will come to pass, we will gather you together in a mingled crowd.'” [Qur’an 17:104]
“O Children of Israel! call to mind the (special) favor which I bestowed upon you, and fulfil your covenant with Me as I fulfil My Covenant with you, and fear none but Me… Children of Israel! Call to mind the (special) favor which I bestowed upon you, and that I preferred you to all other nations (for My Message).” [Qur’an, Surah or Sura 2:40-47]
“And remember We took your covenant and We raised above you Mount (Sinai) : (Saying): “Hold firmly to what We have given you and bring (ever) to remembrance what is therein: Perchance ye may fear Allah… Hold firmly to the Torah…” [Qur’an, Sura 2:63-65]
“When God made a covenant with those [the Children of Israel] to whom the Scriptures were given He said: ‘Proclaim these to mankind and do not suppress them'”. [Qur’an, Sura 3:187, “The ‘Imrans”]
“God made a covenant with the Israelites and raised among them twelve princes of the twelve tribes of the twelve sons of Jacob/Israel]”. [Qur’an, Sura 5:12]
“Bear in mind the words of Moses to his people [the Children of Israel]. He said: ‘Remember, my people, the favor which God has bestowed upon you. He [Allah] has raised up prophets among you, made you kings, and given you that [the Torah and the Land of Israel] which He has given to no other nation. Enter, my people, the holy land [of Israel] which God has assigned for you. Do not turn back, and thus lose all'”. [Qur’an, Sura 5:20, “The Table”]
We [Allah] gave the Book [Torah] to Moses and made it a guide for the Israelites. And when they grew steadfast and firmly believed in Our revelations, We appointed leaders from among them who gave guidance at Our bidding. On the Day of Resurrection your Lord will resolve their differences for them”. [Qur’an, Sura 32:22, “Adoration”]
“We [Allah] gave the Book [Torah] to the Israelites and bestowed on them wisdom and prophethood. We provided them with wholesome things and exalted them above the nations”.[Qur’an, Sura 45:17, “Kneeling”]
“We sent forth Noah and Abraham and bestowed on their offspring [the Children of Israel] prophethood and the Scriptures [Torah]”. [Qur’an, Sura 57:26, “Iron”]
[The Jews] knowingly perverted [the word of Allah], know of nothing except lies … commit evil and become engrossed in sin. [Surah II, v. 71-85]
Verily, they who believe (Muslims), and they who follow the Jewish religion, and the Christians, and the Sabeites 27–whoever of these believeth in God and the last day, and doeth that which is right, shall have their reward with their Lord: fear shall not come upon them, neither shall they be grieved. (Surah II)
But the Quran Surah II (v.35-) (also Sura 5:46) adds:
”…Moses gave we the Book, and we raised up apostles after him; and to Jesus, son of Mary, gave we clear proofs of his mission, and strengthened him by the Holy Spirit. So oft then as an apostle cometh to you with that which your souls desire not, swell ye with pride, and treat some as impostors, and slay others? And they say, “Uncircumcised are our hearts.” Nay! God hath cursed them in their infidelity: few are they who believe! And when a Book had come to them from God, confirming that which they had received already–although they had before prayed for victory over those who believed not–yet when that Koran come to them, of which they had knowledge, they did not recognize it. The curse of God on the infidels! For a vile price have they sold themselves, by not believing what God hath sent down, envious of God’s sending down his grace on such of his servants as he pleased: and they have brought on themselves wrath upon wrath. And for the unbelievers is a disgraceful chastisement…”
THUS, the Quran and early Muslim leaders acknowledged that the Torah was given to the Jews, that Jesus was a prophet of God (denying He is the Son of God), and that the ‘Holy Land’ Israel and Jerusalem belonged to the Jewish people. Numerous copies of original Holy Scriptures have survived that were written before Mohammad’s, and for that matter, Joseph Smith’s (Mormon), revelations; any revelations that do not line up and agree with the Holy Scriptures are the ones that are perverted from the originals.
It must also be noted that Mohammad (who learned Christianity from his uncle and travels with his uncle) and most Muslims come from the linage of Ishmael, Keturah, Esau and the non-Israelites of what is called the Middle East, the Levant, Palestine, etc.; yet, the kings and priests of the Jews came through Abraham, Isaac and Jacob – who was given the name by God – ‘Israel (Genesis 35:10).’ And among Jacob or Israel’s 12 sons (princes) were Levi (priests… such as Aaron and Moses) and Judah (kings… such as David). Joshua, a leader, was of Joseph’s tribe.
What does God say concerning this matter?
“Abram, leave your country, your people… and go to the land I will show you. I will make you into a great nation and I will bless you… says the Lord (Genesis 12:1-3).”
“The Lord appeared to Abram (before he received his name Abraham) and said, ‘To your descendants I will give this land… for all the land which you see, I will give it to you… (Gen. 12:7; 13:15).”
“And I will establish My covenant between Me and you and your (Jewish) descendants after you throughout their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be God to you and to your descendants after you. And I will give to you and to your descendants after you, the land of your sojourning, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God (Gen. 17:7-8).”
“If (the children of Israel) forsake My Law, and do not walk in My judgments… and do not keep My commandments, I will visit their transgression and sins with the rod… but I will not break off My loving kindness… My covenant I will not violate… I have sworn by My Holiness; I will not lie to David. His descendants shall endure forever… (Psalm 89:30-).”
“The Lord declares, ‘the descendants of Israel will never cease to be a nation before Me (Jeremiah 31:36).” “I will bring you into the Land of ISRAEL (Ezekiel 37:12).”
“I have placed the land before you; go in and possess the land which the Lord swore to give to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob… On the east side of the Jordan River …the Promised Land… the territory from the desert and from Lebanon to the great river, the Euphrates – all the Hittite lands – and to the Great Sea on the west (Deuteronomy 1:8).”
What does prophecy say will be the outcome?
“I will bring them (Israel) to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer: their burnt offerings and their sacrifices [shall be] accepted upon mine altar; for mine house shall be called an house of prayer for all people (Isaiah 56:7).”
Jesus prophesied in about 29 AD that the Temple would be destroyed, saying after He and His disciples ‘left the Temple,’ “Do you see all these things? He asked, ‘Truly I tell you, not one stone here will be left on another; every one of them will be toppled (Matt. 24:1-2).”
Future/soon: “Know and understand that (the Temple)… shall be built again… and the people of the little horn/prince/antichrist shall come and destroy the city and the sanctuary… (Dan. 9:24-)… “he shall appear and profane the temple… and take away the burnt offering. And shall up the abomination that makes desolate… (Dan. 11:31).”
“…the abomination of desolation spoken of by the prophet Daniel (Matt. 24:15).”
“Concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ… Let no one deceive you in any way. For that day will not come, unless the rebellion comes first, and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction, who opposes and exalts himself against every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, proclaiming himself to be God… the wicked one (antichrist) will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will consume with the spirit of His mouth and destroy with the brightness and glory of His coming (2Thes. 2:1-8).”
The Killing of Dajjal (anti-Christ) and the Victory according to Islam (Imam Tirmidhi):
“After the completion of congregational dawn prayers, Jesus will open the door behind him where Dajjal (antichrist) accompanied by 70,000 Yahudis (Jews) will be. He will indicate with his hand to move away between himself (Jesus) and Dajjal. Dajjal will then see Jesus. At that time every unbeliever on whom the breath of Jesus will reach, will die. His breath will reach up to the distance of his eyesight. The Muslims will then come down from the mountains and break loose on the army of Dajjal. There will be war, Dajjal will retreat, and Jesus will pursue Dajjal. Jesus will have two flexible swords and one shield with him and with these he will kill Dajjal at the Gate of Hudd. He willl show the Muslims the blood of Dajjal which will get on his shield. Eventually the Yahudis (Jews) will be selected and killed. The swine will be killed and the cross broken. People will revert to Islam. Wars will end, and people will return to their respective countries. One Jamaat (group) of Muslims will remain in his service and companionship.”
Later Hadiths (appearing in the 1930s and 1940s under the influence of Hajj Amin Husseini) indicated the Messiah that all Jews wait for is the Dajjal, and “The resurrection of the dead will not come until the Muslims will war with the Jews and the Muslims will kill (exterminate) them.”
Nevertheless, the Holy Scriptures says, “Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened and …stars will fall from heaven… and the Son of Man will appear in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds with power and great glory. And He will send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they will gather His elect… (Matt. 24:29-31).”
So “behold, seated on the cloud… the Son of Man… and an angel came out of the temple in heaven and cried out loud, ‘…the hour to reap has come, for the harvest of the earth is fully ripe… and another angel came out of the temple in heaven… and reaped… (Rev. 14:14-19).”
And after all the wrath and tribulation and reaping of the righteous and unrighteous, every person and spirit (devil and his angels) were judged (Rev. 20:11-) and the unrighteous were cast into the lake that burns eternally with fire; but the righteous entered the “New Jerusalem… the holy city Jerusalem coming down out of heaven… and the city had no temple, for its temple is the Lord God the Almighty and the Lamb… (Rev. 21:10-22).”
Historical Timeline: Jerusalem and the Temple
c. 3,761: According to most Jewish Scholars (4004 according to Bishop Ussher) Adam created.
c. 2104 BC (Year 1656 – Toldot am Olam; Ussher’s ‘Annals of the World:’ agreed it was 1656 years from creation, but says that = 2348 BC; Sumerian Bible 2204 BC): The Flood and year of Methuselah’s death.
c. 1738 BC (or about 2023 years after Creation): Abram (Abraham) was called, at the age of 75, to journey to Canaan from Mesopotamia. Ussher states, “God called Abraham out of Ur, of the Chaldeans, to go into the land that He would show him (Gen. 15:7; Jos. 24:2; Acts 7:2-). Ur was located in Mesopotamia… Abram took his son and Lot his nephew… Sarai …Abram’s wife, and journeyed… to the land of Canaan…” Ussher says it was 1921 BC or 2083 years from creation.
c. 1677 BC (c.2085 years from Creation): Abraham prepared Isaac for the sacrifice on Mount Moriah; “God tested Abraham… go to the region of Moriah.” (Genesis 22:1-2)
According to the Book of Jasher (mentioned in the Bible; Joshua 10:13 and 2Sam.1:18), “Abraham went with Isaac his son to bring him up as an offering before the Lord, as the Lord had commanded (to test) him… And Abraham went with Isaac toward the place that God had told him. And on the third day he lifted up his eyes and saw the place at a distance… and a pillar of fire appeared… and a cloud of glory upon the mountain… and the glory of the Lord was seen upon the cloud. …And Isaac said I see a pillar of fire and a cloud… And Abraham knew that his son Isaac was accepted before the Lord for a burnt offering. And Abraham said unto Eliezer and unto Ishmael his son (who had travel with them to that distance), ‘do you also see that which we see on the mountain…’ And they answered, ‘we see nothing more than like the other mountains; and Abraham knew that they were not accepted to go with them further… And (when they reached the place) Abraham took the wood and placed it on the altar he had built… And Isaac said ‘bind me securely… lest I should move… and break loose… and Abraham bound his son Isaac… and stretched forth his hand to slay his son as a burnt offering before the Lord… At that time the Lord appeared unto Abraham, calling him from heaven, …’lay not your hand upon him…’ And Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw a ram… which the Lord God had created… offered it as a burnt offering instead of Isaac (Jasher 23:20-73).”
According to Jewish Midrash and the Book of Jasher (22:41), Isaac was 37 years old at that time.
The Ancient City of David (Jerusalem) was built on and about Moriah; near where Abraham offered Isaac.
1638 BC (2123 years from Creation): Abraham died.
1590 BC: Isaac blessed Jacob.
16th century BC: Jacob goes to Haran to find a wife; 12 sons/princes of Jacob/Israel are born: 12 tribes of Israel.
c. 1312 BC (c. 2448 years from Creation): The Exodus (Gen. 12): Moses leads Jews from Egypt across the Red Sea into the wilderness.
c. 1273 BC: Joshua crosses the Jordan River into the Promised Land and Israel begins to conquer the land of Canaan and Palestine.
c.1000 BC: King David captured the Canaanite city of Jebus and renamed it Jerusalem.
c. 930 BC (depending on source): King Solomon, son of King David, built the First Temple in Jerusalem on Mount Moriah.
c. 586 BC: The Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the First Temple and exiled the Jews.
c. 530 BC: Cyrus the Great, King of Persia, allows many Jews return from Babylon and began to rebuild the city and its walls.
c. 515 BC: Construction of the Second Temple going on.
c. 332 BC: Alexander the Great of Greece conquers the Land of Israel.
3rd Century BC: Seleucid Empire controls region.
c. 160 BC: Maccabean Jewish Revolt against Selicid, king of Syria, who controlled Jerusalem.
c. 63 BC: The Roman Empire annexes the land of Israel.
c. 37-4 BC: According to Josephus, Herod finished the Second Temple.
c. 29 AD: Jesus spoke to the apostles about the destruction of the Temple (Matt. 24).
c. 29 AD: Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, chapter 3: “Now Pilate, the procurator of Judea, removed the army from Caesarea to Jerusalem in order to abolish the Jewish laws… Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was the Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day; as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe of Christians, so named from Him, are not extinct at this day.”
c. 66: The First Jewish Revolt against Rome begins; and the Romans send several legions of soldiers to put down the revolt. About this time many believe the Dead Sea Scrolls were hid.
c. 70: Under Emperor Vespasian and the command of his son Titus of Rome, the Second Temple, Herod’s Temple, is destroyed and as many as a million Jews killed, and the Sanhedrin forced to move to Yavneh and held little power.
c. 81: The Arch of Titus is built in Rome – stilling standing today; relief panel (below) shows that Jews were carried back to Rome as slaves and that the Temple treasuries were raided.
c. 80: Flavius Josephus (Joseph ben Matityahu) wrote about the ‘The Jewish War,’ and ‘Jewish Antiquities,’ in which he described the history of the Jews, the destruction of the Temple, the destruction of the Fortress at Masada, and on Jesus Christ.
http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/josephus/war-5.htm (Siege of Jerusalem)
As many as 600,000 Jews killed by Romans.
c. 140: A temple of Jupiter is built by the Romans on the Temple Mount and a temple to Venus is built on Calvary Mount near where Christ was crucified.
c. 313-335: According to Eusebius (4th century historian), Byzantine Emperor Constantine the Great converted to Christianity and issued the Edict of Milan. At that time the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre, Greek Christians, was founded and began to build the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
c. 380: Emperor Theodosius I declared Nicene Christianity religion of the Roman Empire.
c. 386: Jerome moved to Jerusalem and began to write the Latin Vulgate (adopted as Catholic Bible Translation).
394: John II, Bishop of Jerusalem, consecrated the Church of the Holy Zion built were they said the ‘Last Supper’ was and the upper room of Acts.
429: Emperor Theodosius II order the Sanhedrin (Jewish Council) to turn over money that was collected for the Jewish Patriarch, and that effectively abolished the Council for almost 1,600 years until reestablished in 2004.
451: The Christian Council of Chalcedon confirmed that Jerusalem and not Rome was the Patriarchate of Christianity.
527-565: Emperor Justinian the Great establishes the Justinian Code of Law, Corpus Juris Civilis; he also had the Hagia Sophia – original a Christian Church – built in Constantinople; which is now Istanbul, Turkey – the Church was turned into a Mosque and now is a museum.
c. 600: Catholic Pope Gregory I commissioned a Christian hospital built in Jerusalem.
610: Jewish revolt began in Antioch and spread to Jerusalem.
614: The Sasanian Empire (Persians) conquered Jerusalem during the Byzantine-Sasanian War.
c. 620-625: Muhammad tells that he had a revelation from the angel Gabriel and was taken by the angel to Jerusalem from Isra and Mi’raj. He said he was told the built the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem (now third holiest Islamic site). By 625, his followers changed from praying towards Jerusalem to that of his birthplace – Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
632: Muhammad son of Abdullah and founder of Islam, died in Medina and Abu Bakr was nominated to be his successor by Umar ibn al-Khattab. Muhammad had about a dozen wives and at least seven children, including Fatimah who married Ali ibn Abi Talib – cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; and the fourth caliph.
636-37: Muslim Caliph Umar the Great son of Al-Khattab and successor of Abu Bakr – the father-in-law of Muhammad, raided and conquered Jerusalem upon the collapsing of the Byzantine Christian Empire. The Covenant of Umar I guaranteed non-Muslims freedom of religion and allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem.
661: After the assassination of Ali, Muawiyah I became Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate and Governor of the Levant (which included Israel and Jerusalem).
674-678: During the Arab-Byzantine wars Constantinople was sieged.
687-691: Abd al-Malik, the 5th Umayyad Caliph, commissioned the building of The Dome of the Rock on Temple Mount. He also commissioned Campaigns into modern Iraq, Iran and expanded the Muslim Empire.
705: Caliph Al-Walid commissions the building of the Masjid al-Aqsa (3rd holiest site to Islam) on Temple Mount adjacent to the Dome of the Rome.
c.719-759: Umayyad Muslims continually invaded Gaul (most of modern Western Europe) and were at war with the Franks (Carolingian Dynasty – Christians).
732: The Battle of Tours-Poitiers (Arabs call it the Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs): Charles Martel (Prince of the Franks; Carolingian Dynasty; Grandfather of Charlemagne) withheld the Islamic attacks and advancement into Western Europe (modern France) of the Arabs led by Abdul Rahman (who was killed there) of the Umayyad Caliphate; who was allied and aided by the Berbers (north African Sunni Muslims) under Munuza. This was called by historians, one of the most important turning points or epochs in history. The Franks and their allies had a force of about 20,000 to 40,000 against 40,000 to 80,000.
797-807: Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne (King of the Franks), through embassies, reached partial agreements with Caliph Harun al-Rashid (786-809), who was over the Abbasid Caliphate (750 AD to about 1517 AD; Northern Egypt into modern Libya; nearly all of the Arabian Peninsula; and most of the Levant and Iraq). In 799 Charlemagne sent funds to Patriarch George of Jerusalem.
807: By certain sources, Harun al-Rashid offered Charlemagne the custody of the Holy places in Jerusalem. Abdallah (son of Harun) who was sent by the ‘king of the Persians‘ to Aachen (Germany) brought the terms along with two Christian monks from the Mount of Olives Monastery. These things were written about in the “Frankish Royal Annals, concerning the exchanges of delegations and embassies between the courts of Aix-La-Chapelle and Baghdad… and the political interests of both Abbassids and Carolingians against the Byzantines and the Spanish Ummayads… (and concerning) Jerusalem and Palestine.”
(source: Charlemagne, Rome and Jerusalem by A. Grabois; 1981, Revue belge de Philologie et d’Histoire – rbph: http://www.persee.fr/doc/rbph_0035-0818_1981_num_59_4_3349
813-833: Al-Ma’mun, son of Harun and 7th Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, visited Jerusalem in 813 and commissioned renovations to the Dome of the Rock. About that time he was in a civil war with his brothers and others of the Abbasid family. Ma’mun sent Tahir with an army to invade Iraq and siege Baghdad, where al-Amin was beheaded and al-Ma’mun received undisputed rule. Additionally, he continually made war and advances against the Byzantines. Many Christians were taken as slaves from Anatolia during the Abbasid Caliphate.
868-878: Ahmad ibn Tulun was appointed governor of Egypt by the Abbasid caliph; he broke relations and claimed independent rule. In 878, his forces took Jerusalem and Syria.
904-5: Abbasid Caliph regained control of Jerusalem and Syria and put down the Tulunids.
969: Led by Jawhar al-Siquilli much of the Abbasid Empire was conquered, including Jerusalem. This was during the reign of al-Mu’izz of the Fatimid Caliphate (Shia Islamic Muslims who believed that line of authority came through Muhammad’s daughter Fatimid; note Catholic calling the Virgin Mary, our lady of Fatima for ‘apparitions’ in Fatima, Portugal – 1916/17).
1021-1036: Hasan Ali az-Zahir became the Caliph of the Fatimids. At that time the Bedouin (Nomadic Islamic Arabs of the MENA – Middle East & North Africa) revolted. Due to famines in Egypt and strife elsewhere; to help relations with the Byzantine Christians, he opened the way for the rebuilding of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre which was destroyed in 1009.
1054-1066: The Great Schism between the ‘Christians’ of the Roman Catholic Church and of the Eastern Orthodox Church began. The Bishop of Rome – the Pope – claimed to be the head of the Church with universal jurisdiction (over the world). The Patriarch(s) of Constantinople (as a great many bishops throughout the world before them) denied this claim. This Schism (or division) began about 330 when Constantine moved the capital to Byzantium (Constantinople; Istanbul) from Rome and renamed the city ‘Nova Roma.’ Numerous Councils meet and struggles occurred for the next 700 years. About this time the Normans (of France) were marching into Southern Italy and the Byzantine (and Greek Orthodox Church) saw it as a threat (1066 William ‘of Normandy’ the Conqueror conquered England). Additionally, in 1054 the Patriarch of Jerusalem joined the Eastern Orthodox Church.
1073: Jalal al-Dawla (Malik-Shah I) became the first (Islamic) Sultan of the Seljuq Empire in 1072. The next year his forces over Turkish mercenary al-Khwarizmi captured Jerusalem among other campaigns to gain lands from the Fatimid Caliphate.
1095: Pope Urban II, at the Council of Clermont, calls for the First Crusade to the Holy Lands.
1099: During the First Crusade Frankish nobles sent their forces which captured Anatolia and conquered Jerusalem – and Godfrey of Bouillion established the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1099-1187: The Kingdom of Jerusalem was during much of this time overseen by the Latin Patriarchate or Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem; also, were the failed second crusade; civil wars; alliances and threats.
1187: An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Saladin), Sultan of Egypt and Syria (1174-1193) sieged and captured Jerusalem and reinstituted Islamic worship at the Dome of the Rock. He was first Sultan of Egypt and Syria and began the Ayyubid Dynasty (1171-1260; Sunni Islam).
1192: During the Third Crusade, Richard the Lionheart of England failed to recapture Jerusalem, but did succeed in gaining the Treaty of Jaffa and Treaty of Ramia; through which both Christians and Muslims were allowed safe passage through Palestine and to freely worship in Jerusalem – although Saladin kept control of Jerusalem.
1229-1244: Under the Treaty of Jaffa and Tell Ajul between Emperor Fredrick II, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Italy, Germany, Sicily and Jerusalem (1225-1228 – through his wife’s claim; daughter of Isabella II – Queen of Jerusalem) and leader of the Sixth Crusade (1228-1229), and Al-Kamil Muhammad, Sultan of Egypt and Damascus; the Christians were given control over Jerusalem accept for the Muslim Holy Places.
1244: The Muslim Ayyubid Empire or Sultanate (1171-1252), with the alliance of the Khwarezm (who had been pushed into deserts of modern Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan by the Mongols), sieged and took control of Jerusalem. The Khwarazmians (Turks) with some Egyptian Mamluk Muslim slave warriors sacked and razed Jerusalem, leaving it in ruins for both Christians and Muslims. They killed (and raped) Christians and destroyed the Church of Holy Sepulcher.
1248-1254: Enraged by the 1244 Siege of Jerusalem; king Louis IX of France led troops against Egypt, in hopes to destroy the Muhammadan/Ayyubid stronghold and then take back Jerusalem. However, due to military and financial losses his troops were defeated.
1250-1517: During this period between the fall of the Ayyubid and the rise of the Ottoman, the Mamluk Sultanate ruled over Egypt and Palestine.
1260-1300: Mongols raids throughout Asia reach Palestine; but they could not hold it.
1299: Osman I became the first Ottoman Sultan over Turkish Sunni Muslims.
1340: The Christians of the Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem began to wall their community.
1347-1351: The Black Death Plague covered Europe and reached into Palestine killing as much as half of Europe’s population and over 100 million people worldwide.
1453: Constantinople fells to the Ottomans led by Mehmed the Conqueror. It was made their Ottoman Caliphate and the name changed to Istanbul.
1516: The Ottoman Empire or Caliphate (1299-1922) takes control of Jerusalem.
1517-1530s: Protestant Reformation formally began and bibles were printed in their languages.
1535-38: Sultan Suleiman, Caliph of Islam, orders the rebuilding of walls around Jerusalem.
1600: The Ottoman Empire controlled over 30 provinces.
1604: According to the 1604 Capitulation (Agreements/Contracts) of the Ottoman Empire; Ahmad I agrees to allow Christians to visit the Holy Places of Jerusalem and tour other cities.
1672: The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem (originally built 325-565) was consecrated by the Orthodox Patriarch and served as the site of the Synod of Jerusalem and Bethlehem. They refuted ‘unconditional predestination’ and supported the required of the Eucharist.
1697-1700: Judah he-Hasid Segal ha-Levi emigrated from Poland with 31 families, through Moravia and Germany, and arrived in Jerusalem October 1700. At that time about 1000 Jews lived in the city.
1705: After the Naqib al-Ashraf Revolt, which was due to heavy taxes on non-Muslims; restrictions were imposed on the Jews.
1771-1772: Ali Bey al-Kabir, son of an Orthodox priest, raised up an army of about 30,000 and took control of Jerusalem. He allied with Zahir al-Umar (Governor of Jerusalem and Galilee) and Russia during the Russo-Turkish War (1768-74).
1774: The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca was signed by Catherine the Great of the Russian Empire and Sultan Abdul Hamid I after their result military loss. It ended that Russo-Turkish War and called for: “all the hostilities …(to) cease for ever…” and it “acknowledged all of the Tartar peoples as free and independent nations, with freedom of religion and the freedom to be governed by their own ancient laws…” Article VIII gave the “Subjects of the Russian Empire the right to visit Jerusalem and other places deserving of attention in the Ottoman Empire. They will have no obligation to pay any tax or duty, and will be under the strict protection of the law…” http://www.fas.nus.edu.sg/hist/eia/documents_archive/kucuk-kaynarca.php
1799: Napoleon’s French Campaign against Egypt and Syria, in hopes of gaining control of Palestine and Jerusalem, failed after the Battle of Acre.
1809: London Society for Promoting Christianity Among the Jews was founded by Anglicans.
1821-1832: The Greek Revolution or Greek War of Independence in the Balkans was against the Ottoman Empire. The Russian Empire, France and the UK allied with the Greeks. The Revolt brought about persecution against the Christians; such as Grigorios V, the Patriarch of Constantinople and the Greek Orthodox Church, being hung publicly on Easter Sunday, 1821. Houses were plundered and Christians were killed as Imam’s issued a fatwa; and at least one Imam who refused was killed for not doing so. Christian Leaders and Nations around the world were upset that the backlash went beyond the Balkans.
1826-1830: Albury Conferences in England; Prophecy conference – with topics directly related to the return of the Lord, and the ‘nation’ of Israel.
1831: Egyptian-Ottoman War: Wali Muhammad Ali of Egypt took control of Jerusalem and claimed Syria as payment for his aid against the Greek Revolt.
1831-1833: The Powerscourt Conferences in Ireland; where John Darby became connected and funded through Lady Powerscourt. Darby soon after developed the Pre-Tribulation Rapture Theory. The return of the Lord Jesus and conversion of the Jews were central topics.
1840: A firman (Islamic decree) by Ibrahim Pasha forbid Jews to pave the passageway in front of the Western Wall; or to “raise their voices and display their books” there.
1840: Ottoman Turks retake Jerusalem with aid form the British.
1841: A joint protestant Bishopric was established in Jerusalem by the Prussians and British.
1842: The British Society for Propagating the Gospel Among the Jews was founded in London by Presbyterian and non-Anglican Christians.
1862: Prince Albert Edward VII visited Jerusalem.
1860-75: Five Jewish neighborhoods were built outside the walls of the Old City.
1864: Rev. C. Spurgeon (as many other did) preached on “The Restoration and Conversion of the Jews” saying “Israel is now blotted out from the map of nations; her sons are scattered… no king reigns in Jerusalem; she brings forth no governors among her tribes. But she is to be restored…”
1866: Trans-Atlantic telegraph cables connected England and America.
1881: Samuel H. Kellogg wrote in The British and Foreign Evangelical Review an article titled The Jewish Question in Europe (Art. VII; p.728-), saying in brief part: “…the Congress of Berlin lifted Jewish affairs into a new and special prominence… an anti-Jewish feeling has steadily increased… Under Pagan Rome their lot was hard; under so-called Christian Rome it became harder still… confiscation, violence, torture, massacre, banishment and every kind of ingenious and systematic insult, were the common lot of the Jews throughout Europe… out of about 7 million Jews in the whole world… 512,000 are found in Germany and 1,375,000 in Austria and Hungary …The position …held by the Rothschilds as one of the foremost banking firms of Europe, is well known… the Jews almost monopolize the business of banking… the Jews have become the money-lenders of Europe… 1/6th of Jews in Russia live by means of the liquor trade… The same is true of Jews in Romania… with the liquor trade usury goes hand and hand… In Prussia …1861, according to official returns, out of 71,000 Jews capable of work, 38,000 were engaged in commerce… only 1 Jew among 586 day-laborers. In 1871… out of 642 bankers, all but 92 were Jews… Yet the Jews were less than 2% of the population… In Galicia… Jews brought about (thousands of) foreclosures of peasant lands… In the German Empire… Jews hold 70 professor chairs in universities… In Berlin, they are 5% of the population… but 30% of the students in University Prep Schools… In any event… Jews are soon to become an important factor in the political influence and … in political history of the world…”
1880-1890s: Northfield Bible Conferences or Moody’s Bible Conferences overlapped with others such as the Niagara Bible Conferences. However, D.L. Moody and his associates pulled together some of the most prominent religious names of the time. The YMCA aided many of the Conferences. Among the topics were foreign missions and the status of Israel. These conferences influenced pastors and other religious and political leaders, who influenced the masses in America and England.
1882: The New York Prophetic Conference had speakers from Europe and America who had significant influence on both religious and political events. Bishop W. R. Nicholson spoke on “The Gathering of Israel;” and the conference put forth a statement of beliefs.
1882-1900: During the First Aliyah (immigration wave) about 30,000 Jews immigrated to Palestine; yet, over half left due to conditions there.
1891: Rev. William E. Blackstone author of Jesus is Coming (1878), began a petition call Palestine for the Jews (also known as the Blackstone Memorial). He at conferences had spoken about the oppression of the Jews by Russians and Germans. Rev. Blackstone assembled a memorial sent to President Harrison and other world leaders. It was signed by 413 prominent Americans, including future President William McKinley, J.P. Morgan, John Rockefeller, the speaker of the House – T. Reed, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court – M. Fuller. It became the focus of the Zionist movement. PM Benjamin Netanyahu recognized Blackstone in his book, A Place Among the Nations: Israel and the World (1993). Part of the Partition states, “Why not give Palestine back to them again? According to God’s distribution of nations it is their home… This is an appropriate time for all nations… to show kindness to Israel. A million of exiles… some 2,000,000 Russian Jews… desperate for shelter in Palestine… ”
1883-1897: Niagara Bible Conferences (N.Y., USA): the conference declined due to disagreements between a post-tribulation coming of the Lord and Darby’s new Pre-Tribulation Rapture doctrine adoption by some such as Scofield and Gaebelein. Many such as Samuel H. Kellogg of Princeton and on the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church spoke.
1897: World Zionist Organization was founded (by Theodor Herzi and Max Nordau) at the First World Zionist Congress in Switzerland.
1913: US Federal Reserve was formed and income taxes increased on the general public to generate (ledger; then electronic) money for wars and future billionaires.
July 1914: Russia (majority Russian Orthodox Christian by name – not practice) moved armies to help its ally Serbia (Slavic from the Balkans; Serbs primarily Orthodox Christians) against Austria-Hungary (Empire from 1867-1918; primarily Roman Catholics).
August 1914: Germany (Lutheran Christianity; but not by its leaders) invaded Belgium (primarily Catholic at the time) and began World War I – the Great War.
1914: The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers forming the Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary Empire and Ottoman Empire (Italy, a former ally of Germany and Russia, sided with Triple Entente in 1915). Triple Entente was Russia, France and the British Empire.
1915: Germany sank the Lusitania passenger liner killing nearly 1,198 (128 Americans).
1916: Artillery was said to have caused between 60% and 85% of all military causalities depending on was source (British reported 59%; French 76% and Germans 85%). During the Battle of Verdun it was reported that between 15 and 40 million artillery shells were fired. In the Battle of Somme the British lost 60,000 soldiers in one day and both sides lost about 600,000 each during the battle; as well as 100 tanks and almost 800 aircraft.
April 1917: After resumed submarine attacks, the United States enters the war as an ally to France and Britain. The U.S. authorizes a draft.
March 1918: Germans signed a peace treaty with Russia which gave Germany much of former Ukraine and Poland. Germany turns its focus on France. The Americans, with the British and French, push Germany back from advancing on Paris and by November – out of France ending the War.
1914-1918: World War I: Approximately 10 million military killed, and 7 million civilians (about 70% of military deaths were Russian, France and British; about 85% of civilians deaths were due to disease, famine and accidents – over 2.1 million Ottoman; 1 million Russian). The Great War ‘to end all wars’ saw the used of Bayonets, Flamethrowers, Grenades, Machine Guns, Pistols, Rifles, Tanks, Mortars, aircraft, U-boats, snipers and Poisonous Gas (such as ‘mustard gas’).
1917-1918: The Russian Revolution began. China joined the allies gaining credit in the future versus Japan (who also was a Triple Entente ally). The Habsburg’s lost control of their empires (but not their money). Austria and Hungary was separated.
November 1917: Balfour Declaration was leaked with British government intents: It was a letter from former PM, current UK Foreign Secretary, A. J. Balfour to L. Walter Rothschild (MP, British banker, and friend of Chaim Wiezmann = would become 1st President of Israel) stating, “Dear Lord Rothschild, I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty’s Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet. ‘His Majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.’ I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation. Yours sincerely, Arthur James Balfour.”
June 1919 (protocol signed 1920 by Germany in Paris): “Treaty of Peace with Germany (Treaty of Versailles) submitted to the Senate by the President of the United States… Entered into force January 10, 1920… at Paris Peace Conference; Senate document 51, 66th Congress: ‘The United States of America, The British Empire, France, Italy and Japan, these Powers being described in the present Treaty as the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, China, Cuba, Ecuador, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, the Hedjaz (western Saudi Arabia), Honduras, Liberia, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, Siam, Czecho-Slovakia, and Uruguay, these Powers… with the Principal Powers… of the one part; And Germany, of the other part; bearing in mind that on the request of the Imperial German Government an Armistice was granted on November 11, 1918, to Germany by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers… being equally desirous that the war in which …originated in the declaration of war by Austria-Hungary on July 28, 1914, against Serbia, the declaration of war by Germany against Russia on August 1, 1914, and against France on August 3, 1914, and in the invasion of Belgium, should be replaced by a firm, just and durable Peace.
… From the coming into force of the present Treaty the state of war will terminate. From that moment and subject to the provisions of this Treaty official relations with Germany, and with any of the German States, will be resumed by the Allied and Associated Powers. Part I: The Covenant of the League of Nations… the Seat of the League is established at Geneva…
Article 10: The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity andexisting political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled…
Article 22: To those colonies and territories which as a consequence of the late war have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States which formerly governed them… Mandatories on behalf of the League… of Turkey until they can stand by themselves… Central Africa… South-West Africa… certain South Pacific Islands… In every case of mandate, the Mandatory shall render to the Council an annual report in reference to the territory committed to its charge… Part II, Boundaries of Germany… Art. 190, Germany is forbidden to construct or acquire any warships… 198 The armed forces of Germany must not include any military or naval air forces. …Germany undertakes to deliver to France 7 million tons of coal per year for ten years…
1919: The British gained control of Syria, Palestine and Mesopotamia (Iraq). Paris Peace Conference of 1919 set up a special commission to draft the Covenant of the League of Nations.
1920: The League of Nations was officially founded January with about 44 member nations as a result of the Paris Peace Conference.
1920: The League of Nations gave Britain the Mandate over Palestine (1920-1948; ratified in 1923). Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations established Mandate Commissions: A Mandates over parts of the former Ottoman Empire; B Mandates to former German Colonies and C Mandates in South West Africa and the South Pacific. The B Mandate was to be in place until “a stage of development where their existence as independent nations can be provisionally recognized subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory.”
1918-1923: The Ottoman Sultanate collapsed and Mustafa Kamal led the establishment of the Republic of Turkey. A Grand National Assembly, the Ankara Government, was formed in 1920 and elected Mustafa as their president. After the Turkish War of Independence (1919-1923), they declared the end of the Ottoman Empire and created the Republic of Turkey in 1923.
1918: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem was founded on Mount Scopus through the Jewish National Fund (1901; 1916 assets $13 billion). By 1921, JNF land holdings reached 25,000 acres and in 1927 over 50 thousand acres. The Third Aliyah or Jewish immigration to Israel from about 1918 to 1923 primarily came from Russia.
1921-1931: Chaim Weizmann served as president of the World Zionist Organization. The Fourth Aliyah (1929-1939) saw Jews mainly from Poland and Hungary journey to Israel.
1921: The Supreme Muslim Council convened out of the British Mandate of Palestine. It gained power over all the Muslim waqfs and sharia courts. It took over control once held by the Ottoman Parliament in Palestine. It elected Amin al-Husseini as the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem (1921-1937). The first Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was his brother Kamil al-Husayni (Husseini); son of Mohammed Tahir al-Husayni, the Qadi (Chief Justice) of the Sharia courts. They were Sunni Muslims which claimed to be descents of Ali ibn Abi Talib, who was said to be born in the sanctuary of the Ka’bah in Mecca; the 4th Caliph, 1st Imam; and husband to Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad. 1932: Istiqial (Palestinian Indep. Party founded by Darwaza).
1933-34: Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany and then made Fuhrer. In 1933 both Germany and Japan withdrew from the League of Nations.
1935-1946: Chaim Weizmann served as president World Zionist Organization a second time.
1937: Jewish National Fund by this time had purchased over 100,000 acres of land for about 110 Jewish communities. (By the end of the British Mandate in 1948, the JNF owned over half to the land held by Jews.
1930s: Hitler developed the Nazi Party; Ho Chi Minh formed the Indo-Chinese Communist Party; and Stalin’s communism was expanding. Jews began to immigrate to Palestine from Germany and Russia. Jews go from 17% of the population in 1931 to 30% in 1936 and 33% in 1945.
1938: Germany troops marched into Austria and forced the nation to annex.
1939: World War II: Germany annexed Czechoslovakia which then surrendered to the Third Reich. Then without declaring war, September 1, the Germans invaded Poland – even blaming the Poles for the unprovoked attack. Then Japan, already at war with China, declared neutrality in Europe; as was the United States. By the end of September Poland was partitioned by Germany and Russia. Then in October the Germans attacked Britain. It is obvious that the League of Nation was not properly monitoring Germany’s military buildup or persecution of its citizens; or the League had no power or care to do anything about it. In November, the League expelled the Soviet Union for its aggression against Finland.
1940: Between April 9 and May 12, the Germans invaded Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg and France. British PM N. Chamberlain resigned and was replaced by Winston Churchill. June 10, Italy joins the war as an ally of Germany and their bishops salute and bow to Hitler and the Third Reich supposes they will revive the Holy Roman (Catholic) Empire.
Amin al-Husseini with Adolf Hitler: 1941
September 1940: Germany, Italy and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact.
October 1940: Millions of Americans sign up for the draft, as the Italians invade Greece.
April 1941: Japan and Russia signed a Non-aggression Pact.
June 1941: Germany invaded Russia.
July 1941: Germany and Italy decide to end the Yugoslav nation.
December 7-11, 1941: Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii – USA; the next day the United States declared war on Japan; then on the 11th Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S.
1942: The great Powers of the World are at World War, many ‘seeking whom they may devour.’ Hundreds of thousands of Jews are having their homes and assets and personal possessions stolen; being thrown like trash into ‘ghettos’ and then deported on trains to camps and death.
January 1943: Germans surrendered at Stalingrad, Russia.
May 1943: Axis surrendered in Tunisia, and gave up their Africa campaign.
Sept.-October 1943: Italy surrendered to the Allied Powers; then declares war on Germany.
June 1944: D-day; US and allies land in France.
August 1944: Paris was liberated; and the Germans were being pushed back into Germany.
1939-1945: World War II and Genocide: Hitler’s Nazi Germany committed genocide against the Poles, Slavs and Jews. Approximately 2.8 million Polish Jews were killed by the Germans – most executed; and a total of about 6 million Jewish people in Europe. Additionally, about 1.5 million Romani gypsies were killed. According to Slavialand.org, “the largest number of the Jews that died in concentration camps were from Slavic states, mostly from Poland (about 3 million) and the Soviet Union (about 1,5 million), Czechoslovakia (about 300 000), Yugoslavia (about 55 000), Bulgaria (about 7 000), these numbers refer to those whose mother tongue was Slavic, and who were citizens of a Slavic state.” http://slavialand.org/slavicholocaust.htm
Population in 1940: World: 2.26 billion; over 16M Jews (they were cut seriously for the 3rd time in history; 1st: wilderness after Exodus; 2nd: Romans 70AD)
1939 Jews: 4.7 M in USA in 1941; 9.5 M in Europe – with Russia 3M and Poland 1M.
1945 Jews in Europe: 3.8 M and 2010: 1.4 M
March 1945: The League of Arab States formed in Cairo, Egypt. The original 6 members were: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Iraq, Transjordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Syria. Yemen joined less than two months later. As of 2017, there are 22 members; Arab League website: http://www.LasPortal.org
April 1945: US President Roosevelt died and Truman became the President. Russian entered Berlin and Hitler shot himself to avoid war trials and shame on earth (he will find that in Hell).
May 7, 1945: Germany surrendered to the Allied Forces.
July 1945: Japan rejects the surrender ultimatum.
August 6, 1945: The United States dropped an atomic bomb which destroyed Hiroshima; and Japan still refused to surrender.
August 9, 1945: United States dropped an atomic bomb which destroyed Nagasaki; and Japan surrendered unconditionally August 14.
June-October 1945: Representatives from 50 nations met in the US to create the United Nations Charter and October 24, the UN came into existence as the Charter was ratified by the UK, the Soviet Union, USA, China, France and a majority of the other 46 signatories.
1939-1945; WWII: Over 65 million people were killed (over 3% of the world’s 2.3 billion); and as many as 50 million were civilians. Poland lost almost 6 million civilians (17% of the Polish population). The Soviet Union (USSR) lost almost 14% of its pre-war population; most from Belarus.
November 1947: The United Nations adopted the Partition Plan for the “Future Government of Palestine” as Resolution 181. There were 33 nations that supported the Partition, 13 opposed and 10 that abstained. Resolution 181 stated “the Mandate for Palestine shall terminate as soon as possible but in any case not later than 1 August 1948. The armed forces of the mandatory Power shall be progressively withdrawn… completed …not later than 1 August 1948… Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem… shall come into existence… not later than 1 October 1948. The boundaries of the Arab State, the Jewish State, and the City of Jerusalem shall be as described in parts II and III…”
Understand at this point that these boundaries where determined by men; just as others before had made determination by war and treaties and negotiations and not by God.
November 1947: The Plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine and the Arabs had little choice at the time. And as Truman said in his memoirs that great pressure was on him and the leaders of Europe, by supporters of Israel statehood, to push this through; yet, very few political leaders considered the fact the prophecy unfolding before their eyes.
November 29, 1947: Zionist Labor Convention (NY, USA) celebrated UN Palestine Partition.
May 14, 1948: David Ben-Gurion, head of the Jewish Agency, declared “the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel.”
May 15, 1948: The First Arab-Israeli War began and before the end of the month the Arab Legion destroyed the Hurva Synagogue, the Jewish Quarter and remaining synagogues.
May 1948: Wars and conflicts in Palestine immediately began between the Jews and the Muslims. First Arab-Israeli War saw 5 Arab armies invade Israel; soon after 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fled; one-third to the West Bank (Jordan), one-third to the Gaza Strip (was under Egypt’s mandate). Jordan’s King Abdullah gave citizenship to the Palestinian refugees.
1949: Chaim Azriel Weizmann became the first President of Israel (1949-1952). Jerusalem (the City of David; 1000 BC) was proclaimed to be Israel’s capital. An Armistice was reached between Israel and Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria.
April 1949: NATO was formed with 12 countries.
1951; King Abdullah of Jordan was assassinated by Arab extremists on the Temple Mount.
July 1956: the Second Arab-Israeli War began.
February 12, 1958: Israel’s Parliament or Knesset approved it’s ‘First Basic Law’ passed by the Third Knesset stating that the Seat of the Knesset was in Jerusalem and included 120 members.
1958: Yasser Arafat founded Fatah and called “brother, comrades of the struggle” to “inspire all those who are faithful to Palestine… we all must sacrifice ourselves… to the revolution for Palestine, a free Arab state…”
July 25, 1960: Israel’s ‘Second Basic Law’ protected its state owned lands from transfer.
June 1964: The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was founded with the purpose of the ‘liberation of Palestine’ through ‘struggle.’ It was headquartered in Jerusalem and then the West Bank; and Ahmad al-Shukeiri of the 1932 Palestine Independence Party was the first Chairman of the PLO.
June 16, 1964: Israel’s Knesset ‘Third Basic Law’ reaffirmed the previous and set a seven-year term limit for the President.
May 1967: Egyptian troops moved to border and Jordan signed a defense pact with Egypt.
June 5, 1967: Israel (IDF) destroyed Egypt’s air force and tanks on the Syria and Jordan borders in a preemptive attack starting the ‘Six-Day War.’ 250,000 Palestinians fled the West Bank and Gaza Strip. IDF Chief Rabbi Shlomo Goren blew the shofar on the Temple Mount and paratroop commander Mordechai Gur cried out to the troops, “The Temple Mount is in our hands!.” In the past, when Muslims took Constantinople (or India’s Sindh/Punjab – Pakistan), there was not a United Nations or Television media to influence the situation; they did what they wanted to – they change the Hagia Sophia to a Mosque and the city to Islam. But with their allies holding them back and facing 100 times the military power in the Islamic forces, the Jewish politicians continued in a “de facto status quo relinquishing control of the Temple Mount. Israel Defense Minister Moshe Dayan promised that Israel “did not come to conquer the sacred sites of others or to restrict their religious rights, but rather to ensure the integrity of the city…” Yet, Dayan forbid the Jews to worship or even pray on the Mount and left its control in the hand of the Muslim Wakf; only allowing Jews to quietly visit that place where they once shouted to Adonai Eloheinu.
December 1967: The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) was founded by George Habash, who organized a merger of the Arab Nationalist Movement (ANM; started as a student group at the American University of Beirut-AUB), Youth for Revenge (or Young Avengers) and the Palestine Liberation Front (1961; Syrian). In 1968, the General Command militant arm was formed by founder Ahemd Jibril of Syria.
February 1969: In Syria, the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) was founded and exist today (www.dflp-palestine.net).
In 1969, Yasser Arafat became the Chairman of the PLO, which he led until his death in 2004. He also was the President of the Palestinian Authority (PA) from 1996-2004.
October 1973: Third Arab-Israeli War; the Yom Kippur War began when Egyptian and Syrian forces attack Israel on their holiest day of the Jewish Year; cease-fire 10/25/73.
1975-1990: The Lebanese Civil War saw about 250,000 killed and about a million people displaced and fleeing. In 2012, over 75,000 were still displaced. The War became a breeding ground for groups like Hezbollah.
1975: The Brookings Institute (with Brzezinski – for National Sec. Adviser US; Trilateral Commission and Bilderberg member) put forth its “Toward Peace in the Middle East” with the ‘five main conclusions’ including “we believe that the time has come to begin the process of negotiation a settlement… Israel (should) undertake to withdraw by agreed stages to the 5 June 1967 lines with only such modifications as are mutually accepted.”
First, these brilliant minds should understand there would be no long term acceptance of the status quo at the time by either side; secondly, that the Colonies of America would not have and did not make such concessions; and thirdly, who are these U.S. professors and ‘advisors’ to make such long-term Israeli decisions.
March 31, 1976: Israel’s Eighth Knesset passed the Fifth Basic Law: stating that “outside the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) no armed force is to be set up or maintained…”
November 20, 1977: Egyptian President Anwar Sadat became the first Arab leader to visit the State of Israel. He gave a speech before the Knesset (Parliament), saying in brief part, “when we ask what is peace for Israel, the answer would be that Israel lives within her borders, among her Arab neighbors in safety and security… How can we reach this conclusion… there are Arab territories which Israel has occupied and still occupies by force. We insist on complete withdrawal from these territories, including Arab Jerusalem…”
1977-1981: During President Jimmy Carter’s (USA) term, he sought peace between Israel and Egypt through the Camp David Accords, and a $2 billion a year aid package to Egypt promise.
October 1981: President Sadat of Egypt was assassinated by an Egyptian Islamic Jihadist.
July 30, 1980: Israel’s ‘Sixth Basic Law’ or (5740-1980) passed by the Ninth Knesset states “The complete and united Jerusalem is the capital of Israel. Jerusalem is the seat of the President of the State, the Knesset, the Government and the Supreme Court. The Holy Places shall be protected from desecration and any other violation and from anything likely to violate the freedom of access of the members of the different religions to the places sacred to them or their feelings towards those places.”
August 20, 1980: The United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 478 which stated that “the enactment by Israel of the ‘Basic Law’ on Jerusalem and the refusal to comply with relevant Security Council… constitutes a violation of international law and does not affect the continued application of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949, in the Palestinian and other Arab territories occupied since June 1967, including Jerusalem…”
NOTE: The Colonies of America, and for that matter Africa, Asia and South America; when unjustly controlled by foreign governments – ALL – revolted most leading to independent Nations. Most of the 193 UN countries became independent after WWII; after the creation of the League of Nations and the United Nations; and after revolutions and coups.
August 1981: Saudi King Fahd Plan for an Arab-Israeli Settlement: “Israelis withdrawal from all the Arab territories occupied in 1967, including Arab Jerusalem… The establishment of an independent Palestinian State with Jerusalem as its capital… A guarantee of freedom of worship for all religions in the Holy Places…”
June 6, 1982: Israel invaded Lebanon in ‘Operation Peace of the Galilee.’ The invasion was due in part to PLO and other Arab groups firing rockets into Israel. “I will plant Israel in their own land… (Amos 9:15).” “Your territory will extend from the desert to Lebanon… (Joshua 1:4).”
April 18, 1983: a Hezbollah (Hizballah, Hizbu’llah) Islamic terrorist drove a delivery van with about a ton of explosives and detonated the bomb in front of the US Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon; killing 63 (17 US) and wounding more than 110. President Reagan called it a ‘vicious terrorist bombing’ and ‘cowardly act.’ The Islamic Jihad Organization (IJO led by Imad Mughniyeh; of Hezbollah) declared: the bomb ‘is part of the Iranian revolution’s campaign against imperialist targets throughout the world. We shall keep striking at any crusader presence in Lebanon…’ In 2004, US sources claimed it was done by Hezbollah and financed by Iran.
1985-1989: US President Ronald Reagan’s administration gave Israel about $3 billion per year; however, since his office in 1981, they did continue aid to Egypt as well.
1987: Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement), the Palestinian Sunni-Islamic group, was founded by Sheikh Ahmed Yassin and others. It is an offshoot of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, and operates Dawah (Social welfare Department) and Brigades under a Shura Council. It is headquarter in Gaza and goal is an Islamic state in Palestine. In 1991, Yahya Ayyash, a bomb maker, led Hamas’ new military – izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, until he was killed in 1996. Sheikh Qassam founded the Black Hand anti-western and anti-Jewish Jihadist militant group in 1930.
1988: Al-Qaeda was co-founded by Osama bin Laden and some who fought in Afghanistan in the 1980s against the Soviet invasion. Initially the US and Saudi Araba backed al-Qaeda, as they did the Mujahedeen.
August 18, 1988: HAMAS (“Harakat Al-Muqawama Al-Islamia”) put forth its “Charter” of the “Islamic Resistance Movement” quoting the Quran (Sura 3: 110), “Israel will be established and will stay established until Islam nullifies it… “ and calling for Muslims to “Mujahida” or perform their role in the ‘struggling’ for their lands. That is the lands which they took from others and of which they already control more than 90%.
October 1989: The PLO continued to call the “masses of great (Arab) people…” for “the continuation of the blessed intifadah and its firmness on the soil of the homeland…”
1991: The UN, moved by certain nations pushed for the Elven-Point Manifesto for Negotiating… Palestinian Resolutions… against Israel, while the US and certain others continued to support Israeli borders or remain neutral – as did most during World War I and World War II.
1993: Oslo accords were aimed at a long-term peace treaty. The created the Palestinian Authority which was formed in 1994 as a 5-year interim body to govern/control three areas in Israel, namely the Gaza Strip and West Bank.
(9/13/93 US White House: Left to Right: Israeli F.M. Shimon Peres; Russian F.M. Andrei Kozyrev; Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin; US Pres. Bill Clinton; PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat; W. Christopher; PLO Mahmoud Abbas)
1994: Israel’s Knesset passed ‘Basic Law: Freedom of Occupation (5754-1994):’ “The basic human rights in Israel… every citizen and inhabitant of the State is entitled to engage in any occupation, profession or trade…”
1995: Israeli placed a freeze on settlement building; PM Rabin was assassinated in November.
1996: Certain Jews claim this is 3000 years since King David established Jerusalem as his capital.
1997: Israel, in accordance with “Article VII of Annex I to the Interim Agreement” of the Palestinian Authority – agreed to the “Protocol” for Redeployment in Hebron. This defined where joint and separate Israeli and Palestinian Police could operate.
1998: State of Israel 50 years old; same year Arafat rejected Clinton’s Peace Plan.
2000: A Second Intifada (Al-Aqsa Intifada; Palestinian uprising) began. The PLO under Arafat increase terrorism in Gaza, forcing an Israeli evacuation. Israel also withdraws from southern Lebanon.
1949-2000: Millions of Jewish refugees, immigrants, Holocaust survivors and their children become a majority in Palestine. Jews increased from 8% in 1914 and 33% in 1947 to 53% in 2000.
2002: US President George W. Bush calls for a Palestinian State; saying “the Roadmap represents a starting point toward achieving the vision of two states, a secure State of Israel and a viable, peaceful, democratic Palestine. It is the framework for progress towards lasting peace and security in the Middle East…” It is supported by the “quartet:” US, EU, Russia, and the UN.
2002: After numerous suicide bombings, and terrorist attacks including a Passover Day massacre, the IDF launched Operation Defensive Shield on West Bank; one of its most significant counter-strikes.
2004: ISIS/IS/ISIL was birthed at Camp Bucca out of al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) which came about in great due to the US-Iraq and Gulf Wars.
October 2004: The Jewish Sanhedrin Council was re-established after about 1,600 years of absence. Their primarily goal is the preparation and rebuilding of the TEMPLE.
2005: Israel withdrew its military from the Gaza Strip and evacuated all settlements there.
2006: Hezbollah continued rocket attacks on Israel and its civilians. Israel invaded Lebanon in response. Ariel Sharon suffered a stroke which led to an 8 year coma and death.
2007: The Israeli Air Force destroyed a nuclear reactor in Syria; as it did in Iraq in 1981.
2008: The IDF invades Gaza to stop HAMAS from further launching rockets into Israel. Osama Bin Laden vowed to “Fight” Israel for Palestinians.
2010: US President Obama fails to help Israel and the Palestinian Authority reach settlement agreements.
2013: PM B. Netanyahu replaced many religious groups in government with secular ones.
2014: Israel’s Knesset passed ‘Basic Law: Referendum (5774-2014) states that “the State of Israel” cannot make any change “to territory” without “an absolute majority… of 80 members of the Knesset.” Sanhedrin Rabbi Chaim Richman, Director of the Temple Institute, said we are ready to rebuild the Temple.
November 2014: Catholic Pope Francis and Istanbul’s Grand Muslim Mufti Rahmi Yaran pray together at the Sultan Ahmed Blue Mosque less than a mile from the Hagia Sophia (former Christian Church – taken by Muslims and turned into a Mosque – now museum).
November 2015: The European Union Commissioner “adopted …the interpretative notice on indication of origin of goods from the territories occupied by Israel since June 1967;” based on decision of EU Council. Thus, denying from “Israel” and their claim to the land; and labeling such as ‘from the West Bank;” in response Israel cuts communications with the EU.
2016: The US enacted a $38 billion military aid package to Israel over a 10 year period.
February 2017: The Knesset retroactively legalized tens of settlements in the West Bank.
May 2017: The United Nations’ UNESCO declared Hebron (95% Palestinian, in Israeli-occupied West Bank) a protected Heritage site.
June 2017: Work began on the first new Jewish Settlement in the West Bank at Amichay; it is the first new construction for settlement since the Oslo Accords in 1993.
July 2017: Knesset Member and Chairman of Defense Committee Avi Dichter said, “Israel is the sovereign on the Temple Mount, period. The fact that the Waqf became a sovereign on the Temple Mount ended last Friday (7/14/17)” after Palestinian terrorists which were Israel citizens shot (one with a machine gun) and killed 2 Israeli policemen and injured other citizens. Israel closed the Temple to all visitors causing Muslims to protest. The Temple reopened that Sunday with ‘metal detectors.’
November 2017: Poll reveals ≈72% of Jewish Israelis want sovereignty over the Temple Mount; and 68% want Jewish Prayer on Temple Mount. (2009: 64% wanted Temple rebuilt).
December 2017: US President Donald Trump recognizes Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and renews promise of moving the US Embassy to Jerusalem in 2019.
Jan. 28, 2018: Saudi Arabia Billionaire Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal, one of the world’s richest men, was (along with 10 other princes and about 200 high-level officials and ‘businessmen’) arrested for corruption November 3rd and released in January. Saudi’s AG said that “at least $100 billion has been misused through systematic corruption and embezzlement over several decades.” Two weeks ago, the Prince said, “…There are no charges… just some discussions between me and the government… It’s no problem at all. Everything’s fine.” Some believe a closed-door agreement was reached.
The Prince gave the Clinton Foundation at least $10 million from 2001 through 2016. He also gave to Georgetown, Cambridge, U. of Edinburgh, American Uni. in Beirut and Cairo, the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR – anti-US moving embassy to Jerusalem); and he gave at least $20 million to Harvard – which named a program for him: “The Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Islamic Studies Program at Harvard University”
What would be chance of getting the Islamic University of al-Madinah (http://www.iu.edu.sa/) in their holy city of Medina to offer a Christian Studies Program in their Islamic College of Da’awa (‘Sayings’ – of Muhammad) and Fundamentals of Religion (Quran and Sharia law)?
February 2018: Iraq’s Harakat al-Nujaba vows to “stand with Hezbollah in any Israeli attack or action against it…”
Where can the Temple be built? It will be built to fulfill prophecy!
How did the Muslims compare Israel to Mecca by visits and construction?
Mecca 1935 and 1967 and 2001; Jerusalem Temple Mount Mosque 1950s
Notice the lack of care and use of Dome of Rock versus that in Mecca; and see that the Jews have continually prayed at the Wall on Temple Mount.
WHOSE JERUSALEM IS IT? from http://templemount.org/psalm2.html
Years that Jerusalem has been the capital of the Jewish People: (3, 000).
Number of times Jerusalem is mentioned in the Hebrew bible: (657).
City to which all Jews are required to make pilgrimage: (Jerusalem).
Years that Jerusalem has been the capital of any Muslim or Arab people: (0).
Number of times Jerusalem is mentioned in the Koran: (0).
City to which all Muslims are enjoined to make pilgrimage: (Mecca).
Family considered the Guardian of Muslim Holy Places: the Al-Saudis, Rulers of Saudi Arabia. Number of times leading members of this family prayed at Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem when Jordan controlled the city: (0).
Number of synagogues in the Jewish Quarter at the time of Jordanian conquest in 1948: (58).
Number of synagogues in the Jewish Quarter destroyed or desecrated by the Jordanians: (58).
Nationality of officers who led the Arab Legion in seizing the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem in 1948 and forcing all the Jews out: (British).
Arab regime that prohibited Christians from acquiring property in East Jerusalem, compelled Christians to close schools and businesses on Muslim holidays, and to include Muslim teachings in Christian schools, and constructed mosques next to churches to prevent Christian expansion: (Jordan 1948-1967)
Number of Christians in East Jerusalem in 1948 when Jordan seized control: (25,000).
Number of Christians in East Jerusalem at the end of Jordanian rule in 1967.(10,800).
Muslim population of Jerusalem in 1922: 13,413; 1994:145,000. Christian population in 1922.- 14,699; and 1994: 15,000.
Jewish population of Jerusalem in 1922.- 33,971; and 1994.- 406,000.
Number of trees planted by Israel in and around Jerusalem in recent decades: 11 million.
Number of acres transformed into “green belt” at parks in and around Jerusalem: nearly 9,000.
Religious Jews throughout the world recite their prayers 3 times a day while facing toward Jerusalem.
Muslims throughout the world, when they recite their prayers, face toward Mecca.
“The Earth is the Lord’s, and everything in it… (David – King of Jerusalem; Psalm 24:1).”
“All the Nations you have made will worship before You LORD (Psalm 86:9; Rev. 15:4).”
“They will proclaim My glory among the nations. They will bring all your people, from all the nations, to My Holy Mountain in Jerusalem as an offering to the LORD… I will select some of them to be priests and Levites… All flesh shall came to Worship before Me, declares the LORD… (Isaiah 66:19-23).”