(picture:Bone Church in Czech Republic)
POPULATION and DATING ANALYSIS
According to National Geographic News (10/1/2009) in the article Oldest Skeleton of Human Ancestor Found news.nationalgeographic.com ‘Scientists today announced the discovery of the oldest fossil skeleton of a human ancestor… more than a million years before Lucy, the iconic early human ancestor specimen that walked the Earth 3.2 million years ago… Radiometric dating of two layers of volcanic ash that tightly sandwiched the fossil deposits revealed that Ardi lived 4.4 million years ago. Ardi’s partial skeleton includes bones representing at least 36 other individuals…’ In an article by theguardian.com, Jaw bone fossil discovered in Ethiopia is oldest known human lineage remains, displaying it, they say it is ‘around 400,000 years older than previous discovery of homo lineage, 2.8m-year-old jaw and five teeth was found on rocky slope in Afar region.’
Anthropology is the science of man and culture. The college text Anthropology: The Study of Man (1972) states, ‘Prehistoric archaeology is devoted to the span of human existence before the invention and spread of writing (ca. 7000). Classical archaeology is concerned with early civilizations.’ In Chapter 3 it states, ‘The Origin of Species (1859) is in no sense a work of anthropology, but it should be clear… that it has had a profound and ever-increasing influence on anthropology.’ If physical anthropology involves human biology then how is one of its foundational evolutionary biology works not a work of anthropology unless – as it is – it is false. Nevertheless, the text went on in other chapters to explain evolution; as well as to cite ‘a fragment of a lower jaw of an Australopithecus individual in deposits dating to 5.5 million years…’
Though we are neither under the first century Roman Empire or Roman law; nor has Greek been the common tongue for over 1,500 years; nor are we at the 11th century University of Bologna or in the 18th century with biologist Carl Linnaeus, scientists still use Greek and Latin in their nomenclature; especially for new finds. In their defense, they say languages develop new words and meanings change; so it is to ensure systematic naming throughout the world. So ‘australopithecus’ simply from the Latin and Greek means ‘southern’ ‘ape.’
Now, in another, place based on differ shaped very similar in every manner rock tools buried at different ‘Bed’ depths, we see they classified them as Homo erectus vs Australopithecus, etc. as much as ‘300,000 years apart.’ ‘The evolutionary progression that resulted in Homo sapiens was slow but accelerating… Nearly two million years elapsed from the time that pebble tools were first used… Homo sapiens… were the forerunners of Neanderthal man… Homo sapiens antedated the Neanderthalers by 250,000 years or more… The Swanscombe woman was upright and human-brained… a member of the genus Homo… and the species sapiens… The classical Neanderthal type disappeared from the scene around 40,000 years ago… Neandertals were present in the Holy Land 45,000 years ago…” Back to all this later, except to say homo erectus means ‘erect or upright human’ and homo sapiens (coined by Carl Linnaeus) means ‘human discerning’ or ‘wise human’ use to mean fully human species. So here is an experiment; take an 8 year old to the zoo; stand next to the Congo Ape exhibit and ask, ‘Can you easily identify the differences in the ‘southern ape’ and the human that is standing up?
The 8th Edition of the college text, A History of Civilization, Prehistory to the Present (1992) states, ‘In the 17th century Archbishop James Ussher …believed …the precise date of creation of the world by God… was 4004 B.C. …We smile now at the generations that accepted Ussher’s views… because we now believe that the earth is billions of years old and that organic life may go back several billion years. Beginning in 1951, a series of archaeological digs… turned up fragments of a small creature that lived between 19 and 14 million years ago…’ In another place they teach, ‘…Java man lived about 700,000 B.C… We know so little about what was happening during those hundreds of thousands of years… About 8000 B.C. … was a preagricultural revolution… (then) the first Mesopotamian inventors of writing may have been a people the later Babylonians called Subarians… by about 3100 B.C. they were apparently subjugated… by the Sumerians. …Over the thousand years between 3000 and 2000 B.C. the Sumerians developed a phonetic alphabet…’
The Atlas of World History (2001) follows most Ancient Civilization texts that teach civilizations began in the ‘Fertile Crescent’ about 5000 to 8000 BC. It states, ‘the world’s first cities and states emerged in the region of Sumeria in southern Mesopotamia (4300 – 3100 BC).’ This of course corresponds accurately which the Genesis account. Thus, the 1969 college text The Mainstream of Civilization To 1715, after displaying a ‘human skull from the ruins of Jericho, ca. 7000 B.C.; states, ‘The earliest evidences of civilization were found in Mesopotamia (Greek for ‘between the rivers’), the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, in what is now Iraq. This Babylonian civilization… began about 3000 B.C. when a people know as the Sumerians established several city-states… the Tigris-Euphrates Valley to Syria and Palestine… is called the Fertile Crescent.’
The college text, Population, Resources, Environment (1972) states (remember 1972), ‘The explosive growth of the human population is the most significant terrestrial event of the past million millennia. Three and one-half billion people now inhabit the Earth, and every year this number increases by 70 million.’ The text displays a graph showing the ‘estimated world populations.’ i added the last row.
|Date||Estimated world population||Time for pop. to double|
|8,000 BC||5 million||1,500 years|
|1650 AD||500 million||200 years|
|1850 AD||1,000 million (1 billion)||80 years|
|1930 AD||2,000 million (2 billion)||45 years|
|1975 AD||4,000 million (4 billion)||35 years|
|2017 AD||7,500 million (7.5 billion)||42 years|
The text also shows the world population flat lined from 500,000+ years B.C. to 8000 B.C. and likewise to about 1000 AD; although from 5 million to 500 million is not exactly flat-line. The text also writes the population of our ancestors a few million years ago were confined to Africa and numbered perhaps 125,000…’
Now, i must ‘smile’ in disbelief knowing that the text ‘Discovery and Exploration (1960),’ displays ‘Egyptian predynastic (fancy word meaning before Egypt had dynasties – as in a lot of people under a ruler) boat of about 6000 BC.’ The text also shows a ‘stone carving of a river trading boat used by Mesopatamians around 4,000 B.C.’ So we are supposed to believe that although it only took mankind less than 2,000 years to migrate to every inhabitable continent on earth, these ‘discerning’ and ‘upright’ Africans settled or wandered in circles for 120,000 years? The earliest of ‘civilized’ men had the knowledge and means and desire to make tools, build boats and sail rivers and oceans; but slowly evolving man – uncivilized man – we are to believe would starve to death before migrating up the Nile and across the Seas and Straits. Even wolves occasionally seasonally migrate when food availability is critically low. And more than wolves, gorillas often are not territorial and will migrate for food.
Now, starting with the simplest fact, Genesis states that ‘God put man in the Garden of Eden (Gen. 2:15),’ and two of the rivers mentioned that flowed from the garden are the Euphrates (Gen. 2:14) and the Hiddekel going east of Assyria, which is also known as the Tigris. Also, notice the city name – Babylon from Babel (Gen. 11:9). Recall how the Atlas of World History stated this is where civilization began.
Next, about all this dating of bones millions of years. In 1945, Willard Libby worked on the Manhattan Project and after WWII was appointed to the US Atomic Energy Commission. In 1947 he proposed his idea of carbon dating and discovered over the next dozen years that when plants absorb carbon for photosynthesis (use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water), they also absorb certain amounts of carbon-14. He deduced that when a plant dies (not a rock – has to be a living organism), it no longer absorbs any of this carbon and that carbon-14 decays at a predictable rate (mostly – more on that). This dating technique instantly became used by biologists, archeologists and anthropologists. In 1960, he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his ‘method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science.’
OK, so i never took a chemistry class, so bear with me. Basically, there is a known quantity of elements in our Earth’s atmosphere: Nitrogen 78%, Oxygen 21 %, Argon .93 % and Carbon dioxide .038 %. Now carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope of carbon. So you got a couple of options; using your everyday ‘Accelerator Mass Spectrometer’ you can detect atoms of specific elements according to their atomic weights. However, even Beta Analytic Labs admit that many‘AMS do not have the sensitivity to distinguish atomic isobars such as in the case of carbon 14 and nitrogen 14.’ The other method is Radiometric dating which detects beta particles from the decay of carbon 14 atoms. Using the machines properly involves destroying the found material (like in DNA testing). AMS needs less bone material, etc. to analyze; also maintaining the equipment costs millions of dollars.
Nevertheless and more importantly, back to the brilliant Libby; he said that because after 5568 years, half the C14 in the original sample will have decayed and so on, that the method is unreliable past 20,000 to 30,000 years; and impossible to calculate past about 50,000 years. Now just on this alone, we see the absurdity of saying Lucy is 3 million years or those teeth are a million years, or the elephant man because of his abnormal case must have been a missing link.
Additionally, there have been carbon dating test on shellfish a dozen years old which were said the test at 1000 years old. Also, many scientists are disputing dinosaur carbon dating of millions of years to be thousands of years. One such finding was by the University of Arizona in 1990 stating the bone was actually reading at 9890 years old; though agnostic scientists were claiming the Allosaurus dinosaur to be around 140 million years – lol. Somebody(ies) should get fired for such gross negligence – seriously 140 million years apart – why – because if they said, 10,000 or 20,000 or 50,000 years; they would have to start explaining why their cosmic evolving soup did not become rational man; yet, i must ask them why are there no tiger-dragons flying around?
Other miscalculations were made in Tree-ring dating. Although often accurate, trees can grow more than one ring a year. In a study of bristlecone saplings; it was found that the 7,100 year old tree was actually more like 5,600 years; which the study was done in 1983. And coincidentally, according to the Jewish calendar – Creation was 5, 776 years ago (from 2016).
So now we have to deal with this question of tens of thousands of years – instead of millions – which i hope is now dismissed as no more provable than me saying there are no survived writings or evidence of writing before about 3,000 B.C.; wait! That is actually immeasurably more provable.
Now there is another problem with carbon dating. In order to properly calculate age, we need to compare the current year carbon 12 /carbon 14 ratio to the carbon 12 /carbon 14 at the time of death. And when we don’t know the time of death, i.e. a million years or even 5,000 years ago, then we can’t be sure of a state of balance or a time of deviations. There is no way of knowing equilibrium lasted for 20,000 years. For example, Libby in his work had to assume a specific decay rate (SDR) of 15.3 atoms per minute per gram of carbon in his specimen; and a specific production rate (SPR) of 18.8 atoms per minute per gram of carbon in the Earth’s active carbon inventory. Yet, in studies have shown that these values are not constant. For example, solar radiation levels are not constant, and they directly affect the production of carbon 14. Additionally, studies have shown that radiocarbon ages appear too low versus more recent dendrochronological ages (tree ring dating) and TOO HIGH versus older dendrochronological ages starting around 500 BC.
There are several different radiocarbon date studies of the Egyptian ‘Old Kingdom’ which place it from 1,550 BC to 2,100 BC. Others such as Bryant Wood’s study confirm biblical accounts for such as the destruction of Jericho’s city. Also Whitelaw’s findings correct previous carbon dates of 9,000 to 19,000 to infinite to be more accurate as 5,500 or 6,500 or 7,000 years ago.
Agnostic scientist typically are bias, especially when needing funding; yet, they often ignore cataclysmic and catastrophic events whether in the heavens or on earth. The Mount St. Helens event refuted many assumed canyon dating and sediment dating and even petrification dating methods. And this was nowhere on the scale of Yellowstone blowing apart or the Great Deluge – the Flood – during Noah’s time; which would have wiped out anything not written in stone (which they did find) that was not on the Ark. So anyway, OK don’t want to lose those of you on the fence – with having to use too much reason and examination and faith – so back to Mt. St. Helens (1980). Trees blew off the mountain side from the equivalent of a 20 million ton TNT blast; it toppled 150 square miles of forest in six minutes; tree flew hundreds of feet and some landing vertically into the nearby Spirit lake. The volcano also INSTANTLY created a canyon – which when examined years later was said to resemble that of a canyon thousands of years old. So – the trees blew into the lake and after a couple of decades they went to the lake and scuba investigations found many of the trees had petrified do to the water’s temperate and changes in seasons; more over they measured the height of sediment on the trees stuck into the floor of the lake and found that it resembled that which would take hundreds of years to build up. In that one June day, the accumulation of sedimentary laminae and beds was 25 feet thick. Erosion dating and Stratified layer dating after that event was meaningless for places in which natural catastrophes have occurred – which is all over the earth over the past 5,700 years; especially considering that the Lord broke open ocean plates and released ‘the fountains of the great deep (Gen. 7:11; Prov. 8:28; Isa. 51:10; Amos 7:4).’
Therefore, with all of these facts in mind, i get back to my personal population research and questions; but first – the tiger-dragon (scientifically speaking and not talking about Bruce Lee’s Jeet Kune Do). That is when discussing Darwin’s ‘evolution’ and ‘survival of the fittish’ with my kids; we would agree that after a billion or even a few million years; we personally would be a family of tiger-dragons, of course having opposable thumbs and better cerebrum functions.
OK, so the Population Analysis. As long as i can remember, i have searched for answers and been analytical in my nature. So as an adult repenting and returning to belief in our Creator and the writings in the Holy Scriptures – when reading of the Genesis and generations and Exodus and near times of extinctions and great losses of the world’s most expelled and dispersed people – i questioned the Scriptures. i asked myself – hey self, could ‘Jacob enter Egypt with his 12 sons and their wives and 66 persons (Gen. 46:26)’ including their grown children (see Genesis Chronology article) the year 2238 and in 2448 (210 years and seven to eight generations later) Moses cross the Red Sea with ‘600,000 men on foot, besides women and children (Exo. 12:37).’ Note the same in Numbers 2:32. So it was an estimate of about 2 million Jews.
Note, when Exodus 12:40 says ‘the sojourn of the children of Israel who lived in Egypt was 430 years;’ it is from the time of Abraham to the Exodus (Gen. 15:13; Acts 7:6; Gal. 3:15; Exo. 12:40).
So using sophisticated quantitative statistical methods – that is my pencil and paper and a little reasoning – i said again to me, ‘hey self, remember your grandparents had between 6 and 8 siblings each, not counting miscarriages. And there was that dude in Chronicles (1 Chron. 4:25) that had 16 sons and 6 daughters; and there ages were still between 120 (Gen. 6:3) and 80 (Psa. 90:10); and they were healthy in the wilderness and without birth control could have been ‘fruitful and multiplied’ at rate of ten children per couple easily.’ For it is written of that period in time, ‘the Israelites were exceedingly fruitful; they multiplied greatly, increased in numbers and became so numerous that the land was filled with them (Exo. 1:6).’ Moreover, anthropologist tell us that the average first century Roman women could expect to bear on average 6 to 9 children.
Nevertheless, writing down, 30 couples having 10 children, etc. etc… lets continue: Generation 2: 300; Gen. 3 = 150 x 10 = 1500; Gen. 4 = 750 x 10 = 7500; Gen. 5 = 3750 x 10 = 37,500; Gen. 6 = 18,750 x 10 = 187,500; Gen. 7 = 93,750 x 10 = 937,500; Gen. 8 = 468,750 x 10 or 4.7 million people. Ok, so some did not marry, some died and many more unknown factors – but they still get to twice 2 million in 210 years and could have had 9 to 11 children or whatever – any of which would be more plausible than upright apes turning into mankind and hiding a million years’ worth of bones.
Now back to those bones. As stated by these scientists themselves, bones can last thousands and millions of years. So looking for the truth and not assumptions; we discard the ‘5 million estimated world population’ for ‘8000 BC’ and start with better accepted realities.
World population 1 AD is estimated between 150 and 300 million; with 230 million often used. Likewise estimates for 2000 BC are about 25 million doubling to 50 million in 1000 BC and again doubling to 100 million by 500 BC and again doubling to about 200+ million in 1 AD; then doubling again until the 1300s and the time of the Black Plague which killed about a quarter of Europe. Now, the Jews were about cut in half for the 2nd time (3rd Hilter and Nazis) by Titus in 70 AD; and we have great records of Natural Disasters and wars over the past 2,000 years; so these events are widely known and accepted. And more so in the last two hundred years due to advanced weaponry – brother vs. brother or nation vs nation – men can and have killed each other on levels never before experienced. And still from 1650 the population doubled from 500 million to 1,000 million or 1 billion in 1850; and doubled again to 2 billion by 1930 – 45 years later; and again in 35 years to 4 billion and nearly again in 42 years to about 7.5 billion.
So armed with these facts; is it really plausible that if homo sapiens existed a million years ago or even 100,000 years ago their population would have remained flat-lined? The text said, the population of our ancestors a few million years ago were confined to Africa and numbered perhaps 125,000. Even if their life expectancies were reverse Genesis and half of current life expectancies then they would have numbered in the tens and hundreds of billions by the time civilization came on the scene in the ‘Fertile Crescent.’
Moreover, even if their birth rates and survival rates were the lowest recorded in human and animal history; they would still be trillions of bones from the tens of millions of humanoids and billions of animals that would have perished. Salton Sea Beach in California has a dried bed with millions of fish that died there in the past hundred plus years. More importantly, there are mass ‘bone yards’ of both fish and dinosaurs in the mountains, such as would occur due to a great worldwide flood; in 1977 ten thousand Hadrosaurs were discovered on Egg Mountain; massed together with piles of mammals, fish and insects in the Rocky Mountains of Montana and Alberta, Canada.
Thus, my question to agnostic scientists and Christians doubting biblical creationism and chronology is; ‘where are all the trillions of bones we should be wading through from the Homo sapiens and the animals that surrounded them that supposedly walked this Earth for over a million years?’
After a few hours of sleep, i leave you with this slightly unedited article, a last comment and with Peters inspired words, ‘Beloved, I now write to you this second epistle that you may be mindful of the words which were spoken before by the holy prophets, and of the commandment of us, the apostles of the Lord and Savior, knowing this first: that scoffers will come in the last days, walking according to their own lusts, and saying, “Where is the promise of His coming? For since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of creation.” For this they willfully forget: that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of water and in the water, by which the world that then existed perished, being flooded with water. But the heavens and the earth which are now preserved by the same word are reserved for fire until the Day of Judgment and perdition of ungodly men. But, beloved, do not forget this one thing, that with the Lord one day is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. The Lord is not slack concerning His promise, as some count slackness, but is longsuffering toward us, not willing that any should perish but that all should come to repentance.’
That is for nominal ‘Christians’ to come to repentance and believe the Word of God, especially of God’s ability to speak an aged Adam, aged earth with aged trees and mountains, and an aged and expanding universe into existence or please just quit calling yourselves ‘Christians’ – followers of Christ and in so doing taint the faithful ones. Moreover, if you don’t have the reason and wisdom and knowledge and faith to believe in the mercy and resurrection offered through Almighty God and Jesus Christ – why care about calling yourself a Christian anyway. You would simply be deceiving yourself and other weak Homo Erectus Christians.
May the Lord bless you all and keep you all…
a servant (Resipsa)