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Terrorism: Causes and Timeline of Significant Events leading to the Establishment of Top Terrorists Groups

Understanding history and the causation of terrorist organizations; as well as how they are distinguished from revolutions or protest groups, will show why they are often on going entities and much more extreme.   This article will take a brief look at differences in Revolutions and Terrorism; and provide a timeline of significant background events and of the founding of various terrorists groups.

Difference in Revolutions and Terrorism

Revolutions are typically caused by a great divide between social classes and follow a significant increase in the unhappiness of the masses and injustice and or serious corruption by the empowered government.  Often the masses are forced to pay high taxes, have great difficulties in achieving a livable standard of living, while the government and corporate (industrial) elites enjoy luxuries only afforded to the few.  Normally revolutions are preceded by protests and even violent clashing, such as riots and even coup attempts.

Crane Brinton’s studies of the French Revolution and other revolutions, lead him to conclude that revolutions have similar ‘symptoms’ that occur before the uprising.   Brinton’s Theory noticed the following among the main ‘factors or conditions of Revolutions:’ “People from all social classes are discontented; people feel …held down by unacceptable restrictions in society, religion, the economy or the government; scholars… give up on the way their society operates; the government does not respond to the needs of its society; the government (becomes unsavable; and) …cannot organize its finances… and is going bankrupt and or …taxing heavily and unjustly.”

Of course, many will remember being taught in school one of the major causes of the American Revolution was ‘taxation without representation.’  Likewise, most nations that were once colonized fought for independence.  In Africa, Asia, South and Central America, many countries protested and rebelled for decades until they gained their independence.  The people of many current nations revolted against the injustice of foreign sovereigns enriching themselves taking the country’s resources, while the masses of the land, that were there generations before, remained poor.

The main causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917 were the inability of the masses of the peasant class workers to find work or work with wages to sustain their families; the poor living conditions for most of the population; the Tsar dictatorship style over a massive amount of territory; desire for political change; propaganda of the Bolsheviks; failed agriculture programs with chronic food shortages; civil unrest with the lack of government controls; post world war left guns in the hands of troops which defected and joined the coups and protests.

Nevertheless, nearly every revolution has been followed by a political change with a new constitution and soon after a renewed sense of nationalism.  The new ruling party(s) and their politicians are typically given a chance to succeed; though most often corruption becomes a reality; and coups have often followed in less developed nations.  Since the founding on the United Nations, and the decolonization of countries in the 1960s and 1970s, leaders of nations through joint organizations, UN programs, and the World Bank and IMF institutions of the United Nations, significant stability and sustainability have been given to nearly every nation on earth.

Difference with Terrorism

The main differences with terrorism and revolutions is that revolutions are used to resolve economic and political injustices for the mass population in the territory; while terrorism is more often linked to propaganda and ideologies without care for loss in the innocent masses.  Propaganda meaning spoken and written information or literature, religious and political, which influences a certain class of individuals that relate to a group.  Ideologies are the religious, political and social proclamations, teachings and philosophies of the group which influence terrorist militants, potential terrorists and recruits.

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Though there is occasionally a fine line that separates coups of revolutions and attacks to gain land by terrorists; revolutions are due to civil unrest and civil war with a desire to help the country’s populations; where most terrorists typically have no serious agenda take over the land and establish a new constitution with justice for the territory’s population.  As a matter of fact, more often, terrorists kill, abuse, kidnap, claim booty, rape and steal for the population in the territory.

The social and political causes of terrorism are often misguided.  Terrorists often fight or kill by orders or revenge without care for the innocent.  They often see social injustice against their religious teachings and religious leaders; as well as their political leaders such as in the case of many Islamic radicals serving PLO’s Mohammed Yasser Arafat.  Many terrorists seek to gain or regain land or rights.  Many simply fight due to hatred and or revenge, for example; because their city, region or people were attacked by foreigners.  Some join because they feel misplaced or alone in their current state.  Some join because of economics, poverty and lack of jobs.  However, most are simply moved and indoctrinated with false truths and personalities that put forth their dogma or teachings, such as with al-Qaeda’s Inspire Magazine.

Like revolutionists, terrorists see injustice, discrimination, corruption and loss by military or political means; however, the manner in which terrorists speak and attack is typically far beyond that of revolutionists.  Thus, they are often called extremists or radicals.

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(Above) Shows Colonies of Western ‘Christian’ Powers

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(Above) Colonies of Western Powers & Russia and Japan

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Shows Ottoman Empire and Persia

Brief Background of History and the Founding of Groups

It is no new thing that tribes and nations war and conquer other tribes and nations.  However, the discovery and conquest of the Americas by Western European nations have had the most significant impact on the world.  It determined languages which are spoken today, as well as in the change of cultures and controlling powers of the Americas.

The period following the Industrial Revolution, from about 1870 (post-slavery societies) to 1914 (WWI), was also one that significantly impacted the world.  Western Europeans powers and the United States, Russia and Japan (WWI Allies), all sought to dominate countries and territories throughout Africa, the Middle East, Southern and Southeastern Asia; as well as Korea.

Typically, these powers aggressively entered territories to expand their footholds before other powers claimed them.  They often worked with local rulers that were set up with riches and powers in return for the controlling interest of their resources.  The people in these nations usually did not benefit and were treated as slave-workers, with poor conditions and low pay.   European merchants became corporate leaders and millionaires (now billionaires) while the masses received very little benefit from their own territories’ resources.  The initial welcome of better technology would decades later be replaced with anger and protest of the foreign presence.

June 1916: Arabs revolt against the Turkish Ottoman Empire (part of WWI Central Powers) and after WWI the British sought to fulfill their promise to give the Arabs a kingdom.  Sharif Hussein bin Ali, Emir of Mecca and King of the Arabs (great grandfather of Saddam Hussein) led the Great Arab Revolt.  After the war they gained part of what is now Jordan and Syria.

1914-1918: World War I and the fall of the Ottoman Empire.

November 1917: The British (American backed) Balfour Declaration declares the intent to give the Jewish People ‘a national home in Palestine.’

1920-1922: The League of Nations divides territories; giving Britain and France control over Palestine and Iraq.

1928: the Society of the Muslim Brothers, the Muslim Brotherhood was founded in Egypt by Sunni Islamist Hassan al-Banna.  One of their mottos is: “Islam is the Solution… the Qur’an is the Constitution; the Prophet is our leader; jihad is our way; death for the sake of Allah is our wish.”

1930s: Hitler developed the Nazi Party; Ho Chi Minh formed the Indo-Chinese Communist Party; and Stalin’s communism was expanding.    Jews began to immigrate to Palestine from Germany and Russia.  Jews go from 17% of the population in 1931 to 30% in 1936 and 33% in 1945.

1921: The Supreme Muslim Council convened out of the British Mandate of Palestine.  It gained power over all the Muslim waqfs and sharia courts.  It took over control once held by the Ottoman Parliament in Palestine.  It elected Amin al-Husseini as the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem (1921-1937).  The first Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was his brother Kamil al-Husayni (Husseini); son of Mohammed Tahir al-Husayni, the Qadi (Chief Justice) of the Sharia courts.  They were Sunni Muslims which claimed to be descents of Ali ibn Abi Talib, who was said to be born in the sanctuary of the Ka’bah in Mecca; the 4th Caliph, 1st Imam; and husband to Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad.

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Amin al-Husseini seen with Adolf Hitler in 1941

August 1932: Founding of (Istiqial) the Palestinian Independence Party by Muhammad Izzat Darwaza and at least 7 others, with Ahmad Shuqeiri attending (first Chairman of the PLO in 1964).  Darwaza organized anti-British protests and in 1937 was exiled to Damascus due to his radical tactics.  Darwaza was also the General Administrator of the Waqf (1930-1937).  Waqf is property and assets, such as mosques or land, primarily under the control of the Supreme Muslim Council.

1933-1945: About 6 million Jews are killed during the genocide Holocaust.

1941: al-Husseini met with Hitler and said, “The Arabs could be more useful to Germany as allies… for geographical reasons and because of the suffering inflicted upon them by the English and the Jews.’  The Arabs met with the Fuhrer is hopes of independence for Palestine, Syria and Iraq.

In 1945, World War II ended after shaking up decades and centuries of rule in various nations.  That year the United Nations was established and assembled in 1946 with representatives from 51 member states present in London.   In 1946, many ‘Christian’ western European nations still had colonies.  However, lands changed hands as the Ottoman Empire lost its control during WWII, and soon dozens of colonies would gain in the 1960s and 1970s as the Western Powers could no longer hang with their imperial control.

March 1945: The League of Arab States formed in Cairo, Egypt.  The original 6 members were: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Iraq, Transjordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Syria.  Yemen joined less than two months later.  As of 2016, there are 22 members; and in March 2017 the 34th summit will take place in Jordan.  Arab League website: www.LasPortal.org

July 1947: The UK partitioned India and Pakistan; by August both countries gained their independence.

November 1947: The UN partitions Palestine into separate Jewish and Palestinian states.

May 1948: Israel was declared a state; wars and conflicts in Palestine immediately began between the Jews and the Muslims.  First Arab-Israeli War sees 5 Arab armies invade Israel; soon after 700,000 Palestinian Arabs flee; one-third to the West Bank (Jordan), one-third to the Gaza Strip (was under Egypt’s mandate).    Jordan’s King Abdullah gave citizenship to the Palestinian refugees.

1946-1954: First Indochina War (French Indochina).  The United States stands with France, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Taiwan against the D.R. Vietnam, Russia, China and East Germany.

1950-1953: the Korean War which ended with a divided North and South Korea.   The United States and the UN joined the side of South Korean, and the Soviet Union (Russia) supported North Korea.

April 1949: NATO was formed with 12 countries.

May 1955: the Warsaw Pact was established with 8 countries.

July 1956: the Second Arab-Israeli War began.

1957-1975: The Vietnam War and conflicts.  Russia aided North Vietnam and the U.S. pulled out in 1973, to watch the Khmer Rouge take Saigon and Cambodia.  Thus, by October 1975 the Communists had control.

In 1958, Yasser Arafat founded Fatah, and called ‘brother, comrades of the struggle’ to ‘inspire all those who are faithful to Palestine…;’ adding, ‘we all must sacrifice ourselves… to the revolution… (for) Palestine, a free Arab state.”

June 1964: The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was founded with the purpose of the ‘liberation of Palestine’ through ‘struggle.’   It was headquartered in Jerusalem and then the West Bank; and Ahmad al-Shukeiri of the 1932 Palestine Independence Party was the first Chairman of the PLO.

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1964-1976: Mao Tse-Tung’s ‘Little Red Book’ was published and distributed among the populace.  It was sent also to leaders and many members of the People’s Liberation Army; a famous quote, ‘Workers of the world, unite!’  It was approved by the Propaganda Depart. Of the Communist Party of China and distributed in 117 countries.

June 1967: Israel destroyed Egypt’s air force and tanks on the Syria and Jordan borders in the ‘Six-Day War.’  250,000 Palestinians fled the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

December 1967: The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) was founded by George Habash, who organized a merger of the Arab Nationalist Movement (ANM; started as a student group at the American University of Beirut-AUB), Youth for Revenge (or Young Avengers) and the Palestine Liberation Front (1961; Syrian).  In 1968, the General Command militant arm was formed by founder Ahemd Jibril of Syria.  In 1972, the PFLP-Special Operations was founded by the Islamic-Marxism Wadie Haddad.  It was a break off of the PFLP and ceased in 1976.   Habash received a doctorate in medicine at the AUB in 1951.

February 1969: In Syria, the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) was founded and exist today (www.dflp-palestine.net).

In 1969, Yasser Arafat became the Chairman of the PLO, which he led until his death in 2004.  He also was the President of the Palestinian Authority (PA) from 1996-2004.

October 1973: The Yom Kippur War

1975-1990: The Lebanese Civil War saw about 250,000 killed and about a million people displaced and fleeing.  Even in 2012, over 75,000 were still displaced.  The War became a breeding ground for groups like Hezbollah.

June 1976: Air France flight was hijacked in Israel and diverted to Greece and then Entebbe, Uganda, by the PFLP, two hostages were killed.  The hijackers demanded 40 Palestinian prisoners freed.  On July 4th, Israeli commandos rescued 102 of 106 hostages and killed the 7 hijackers, along with 45 of over 100 supporting Ugandan soldiers.

Note: Nation of Islam was founded 7/4/1930 by Wallace Fard Muhmmad; then Elijah Muhammad (Elijah Poole) from 1934-1975 led; he was the mentor of Malcolm X {organized the black nationalist group Muslim Mosque, Inc. and OAAU (Org. of Afro-American Unity) after breaking away from the NOI in 1964; he was assassinated in 1965} and the radical Louis Farrakhan (current leader of NOI).  In 1966, the Black Panther Party was founded and led by Huey Newton, former member of the Afro-American Assoc.; the party was disbanded in 1982, after Newton was accused of embezzling $600,000.

March 1977: Hamaas Khaalls (Ernest McGhee), former national secretary of the Nation of Islam, broke away from the NOI due to extreme violence and murder; yet, joined and led a dozen Hanafi Muslims in taking 149 hostages in Washington D.C.; a journalist and police officer were killed before the group surrendered.

November 4, 1979: The US Embassy in Tehran, Iran was seized by members of the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam Khomeini Line and 66 hostages were taken.   The hostages were kept 444 days before freed 1/20/1981.  Some of the terrorists were members of the Pasdaran, the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps. (established 1979; under the Supreme Leader of Iran).  Ebrahim Asgharzadeh was one of the leaders of the student group; and Ayatollah Khomeini stated he was unaware of their plans.  Asgharzadeh was not convicted, but rather became a Member of Iran’s Parliament in 1989.  President Carter, his admission and Congress’ handling of the Iran Hostage Crisis strengthen position of the Supreme Leader of Iran; as well as future tactics of Islamic terrorists.  In 2016, President Obama did likewise, paying hundreds of millions of dollars for 5 hostages.

November 22, 1979: Islamic attack on US Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan following false reports of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia being attacked by the US.

1980-1988: The Iran-Iraq War over border disputes and by Shia and Sunni Muslims of Iraq versus Shia Muslims of Iran.

Late 1960s the Shining Path was founded by Abimael Guzman, a former professor of philosophy at San Cristobal of Huamanga University in Peru.  Guzman was moved by Marxism and Maoism and founded the Communist Party of Peru; known as the Shining Path.  Its militant arm was called the People’s Guerrilla Army.

March-May 1978: Former PM Aldo Moro, president of Christian Democracy, was kidnapped and killed by Italian Marxist Red Brigade (Brigate Rosse) terrorists.  They also killed was bodyguards.  In 1982 the Red Brigades kidnapped US Army Gen. J. Dozier.

1979-1987: Lebanese Armed Revolutionary Factions (Brigates) was a Marxist guerrilla group that rose from the PFLP-EO.  It is an ally terrorist organization to the PLO and Hezbollah.  Between 1982 and 1987 they did many bombings and kidnappings in Lebanon and Western Europe.  In 1986 they killed 15 people at the capital of France.  After 1990 the group faded.

May 1980: The Shining Path began a coup against the Peruvian government.  The terrorists of the Shining Path sought to bring down government agencies and set up a communist peasant regime.  It waged guerrilla war, typically in rural areas.  The Shining Path performed narcotrafficking, kidnappings, bombings, political assassinations and forced taxes to raise funds and bring about terror.  In 2006, Shining Path ranked 41 on the U.S. list of top terrorist organizations.  Between 1980 and 1990, about 70,000 people were killed during conflicts with the terrorists.  In 1992, they lead a coup and took control of most of Peru’s institutions.  September 1992, Guzman was captured and the Shining Path faded.  However, even in 2008, they were drug trafficking and killing.

October 1981: President Sadat of Egypt was assassinated by an Egyptian Islamic Jihadist.

January 1982: Malcolm Kerr, president of American University in Beirut (AUB) was killed by an Islamic Jihadist.  Note: ANM (of the PFLP) was founded at AUB.

June 6, 1982: Israel invaded Lebanon

April 18, 1983: a Hezbollah (Hizballah, Hizbu’llah) Islamic terrorist drove a delivery van (purchased from Texas) with about a ton of explosives and detonated the bomb in front of the US Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon; killing 63 (17 US) and wounding more than 110.  President Reagan called it a ‘vicious terrorist bombing’ and ‘cowardly act.’  The next day (19th) Congress approved $250 million more for military aid for Lebanon.  The Islamic Jihad Organization (IJO was led by Imad Mughniyeh; a member of Hezbollah) declared: the bomb ‘is part of the Iranian revolution’s campaign against imperialist targets throughout the world.  We shall keep striking at any crusader presence in Lebanon…’  In 2004, US sources claimed it was done by Hezbollah and financed by Iran.

October 23, 1983: On Sunday, Iranian Islamic Terrorist Ismail Ascarl used a Mercedes-Benz 19-ton truck with 10 tons of TNT on the barracks of US and French Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF) peacekeepers; killing 241 US marines; minutes later another truck bombed a 9-story building killing 58 French paratroopers and 6 civilians.  ‘Islamic Jihad’ from Iran and Syria were said to be responsible; ran by Mughniyah and Mustafa al Din; Hezbollah did not use its name until 1985.

In 1984: William Buckley, CIA station chief in Beirut was kidnapped and killed.

Hezbollah (Hizballah, Hizbu’llah) is Islamic terrorist group.  Hezbollah means ‘party of Allah (God);’ and is a Shi’a Islamic political and militant group.  The group was conceived by Muslims clerics and received the majority of its funds from Iran.  Their primarily goal is to destroy or ‘struggle’ with Israel; and according to its 1985 manifesto, to expel ‘the Americans, the French and their allies definitely from Lebanon…’  Its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini.  It founders and leaders likely included Shite cleric Ragheb Harb and Imad Fayez Mughnlydh (IJO).  Harb was assassinated in 1984 in front of his home.

For more on Hezbollah see:  Top Islamic Terrorists Groups

 

Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr (1935-1980), a cleric and son of a Grand Ayatollah, was a founder the Islamic Dawa Party (1958) in Iraq.  He was executed in 1980 by Saddam Hussein.  Though his only son does not believe in revenge through violence; al-Sadr did influence his student Moussawi; and thus, indirectly Hezbollah members.

Zbigniew Brzezinski, President Carter’s National Security Advisor told CNN that the US organized and supported Bin Laden and originators of ‘Al Qaeda’ in the 1970s to fight the Soviets.  At least by 1979, Bin Laden left Saudi Arabia to fight the Soviets in Afghanistan.  By 1984, he was a chief leader in the Maktab al-Khidamar (MAK) which helped fund al-Qaeda.   According to Robert Gates, former head of the CIA, ‘American intelligence services began to aid the Mujahideen in Afghanistan six months before the Soviet Intervention… July 3, 1979 President Carter signed the first directive for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul… (against Gates’) opinion this aid was going to induce a Soviet military intervention.’  The Polish born American, Brzezinski, said in a 1998 interview, “What is most important to the history of the world?  The Taliban or the collapse of the Soviet empire?  Some stirred-up Moslems or the liberation of Central Europe and the end of the cold war?”  At that time he did not dream or foresee of al-Qaeda or ISIS future strength; and likely that Russia with economically and politically weaken and divide.  The US supplied Afghan schoolchildren textbooks with propaganda showing jihad soldiers and teaching Islamic militant ideas that they continued to use to support their ‘jihad’ – many now against Western Powers.  The 9/11 commission reported in 2004 that some of Pakistan’s religious schools (madrassas) served as ‘incubators for violent extremism.’  Many madrassas were funded by Saudi and US intelligence agencies.  Moreover, Ali Mohamed was an agent, military trainers and spy for the US and al Qaeda,

1979-1989: Soviet-Afghan War: over the 9 years more than 14,400 Soviet troops were killed and 80,000+ of the Mujahedeen (Mujahideen), with about the same about wounded.  The Mujahedeen were mostly guerrilla jihadists.  About 1987, the US began heavy equipping the Mujahedeen with guns and portable hand launched infrared surface–to-air (SAM) Stinger missiles (MANPADS).

1978-2001: Ahmad Shah Massoud was a leader of the Mujahideen until his death September 9, 2001; 2 days before 9/11/2001 likely by Taliban extremists.

In 1985: Afghan Mujahideen leaders meet with Reagan in the White House.

1987: Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement), the Palestinian Sunni-Islamic group, was founded by Sheikh Ahmed Yassin and others.  It is an offshoot of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, and operates Dawah (Social welfare Department) and Brigades under a Shura Council.  It is headquarter in Gaza and goal is an Islamic state in Palestine.  In 1991, Yahya Ayyash, a bombmaker, led Hamas’ new military – izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, until he was killed in 1996.  Sheikh Qassam founded the Black Hand anti-western and anti-Jewish Jihadist militant group in 1930.

1988: Al-Qaeda was founded by Osama bin Laden and others who fought in Afghanistan in the 1980s against the Soviet invasion.  Initially the US and Saudi Araba backed al-Qaeda, as they did the Mujahideen.

ISIS was birthed in 2004 at Camp Bucca out of al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) which came about significantly due to the US-Iraq and Gulf Wars.

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(below: picture of al Qaeda leader Abu al-Zarqawi on newspaper)

9/4 Musab al Zarqawi

Former highest clearance NSA and CIA agent Edward Snowden (through wiki-leaks) revealed that ISIS leader Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi was trained in Israel and was a ‘Mossad Agent;’ as alleged by Al Qaeda leader al-Zawahiri and other sources.   More over he accused the CIA of funding ISIS forces through heroin trafficking in Afghanistan.   Some allege that Baghdadi was born Elliott Shimon in Israel.   And Nabil Na’eem, founder of the Islamic Democratic Jihad Party and former a former al-Qaeda commander, told Beirut’s al-Maydeen TV in 2013 that “the US has been allowing us (Al-Qaeda) to fight in Afghanistan for 18 years and have funded and supported us… I personality believe that the leader of the Nusra Army, al-Jawlani, who declared his support for Ayman Al Zawahiri, is a CIA operative.”

Yet by other sources, 2 of his uncles served in Saddam’s security services; and a brother died fighting in Iraq fighting against Iran with US backed support.   Nevertheless, what is know is that Baghdadi was allowed to go throughout Camp Bucca among the 24,000 inmates.   By December 2004, when he was released, he had all the contacts he needed to begin the now largest terrorists organization in the world – ISIS.

see: The ISIS Threat

Islamic Terrorist attacks from 9/11 2001: Why – Part I

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ISIS in 43 Toyota trucks supplied to the Al Nusra Front by the US government (2014). Certain US State Department representatives claim they were sent to the Free Syrian Army – maybe, but they look very good – without a scratch.

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