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Chronology 611 – 1054

CHRISTIAN HISTORY: 611 – 1054

(Muhammad – the Great Schism)

Chronology of Church History and related Events

Bells and Organs used Europe Late 6th / early 7th century in churches
Bishop Isidore of Seville, Spain was elevated to bishop c.600/1.  He was born to a rich Roman-Hispano Catholic family.  All the siblings were made ‘saints:’ Archbishop Leander, bishop Fulgentius, Florentina (nun; ruled 40 convents), and Isidore.
After the Merovingian king Clovis (son of Childric I), first king of the Franks to unite the tribes (French), died in 511, his sons divided the kingdom.  Chlothar I reigned from 511 to 558, then his son Chilperic I.  At that time Sigebert I reigned as king of Austrasia from 561-575; Theuderic II, king of Burgundy and Austrasia reign to 613 – he was the son of Childebert II.  Chlothar II, ruled over the Franks from 613 to 629 when Dagobert took over – he would be the last Merovingian king with significant power.  In 639 he was buried in Saint Denis Basilica (opened c. 636), France.
Missionaries in England 611 Kent and Essex have been converted for a decade
St. Paul’s Cathedral 611 London; Catholic services (604 construction)
Muhammad preaches c.613 Leaders of Mecca try to assassinate Muhammad
Emperor Heraclius 610-641 Byzantine Empire; war w/Sassanid until 628
Heraclius makes Greek official language of Eastern Roman Empire.  He drives back the Persians out of Asia Minor.  Persian King Khosrau II defeated 628, then executed by his own son Kavadh II.  Heraclius takes title ‘King of kings;’ Basileus (Emperor/King).
Pope Boniface V 619 Rome Deacons are to perform baptism
Archbishop Mellitus 619 England 3rd Archbishop of Canterbury
2nd Council of Seville 619 Spain Bishop Isidore presides
622: After the death of his wife and uncle and danger in Mecca, Muhammad travels to oasis town Yathrib where there is a civil war.  His father was known and buried there.  He wins over followers and the town becomes known as Medina – city of the Prophet.   He and his converts fight several battles over several years until treaty in 628 in which the Muslims in Arabia are recognized.   Muhammad proclaims to have been flown to Jerusalem by the angel Gabriel and received the Quran (Koran)
Pope Honorius I 625 Served 13 years to death; in 680 – called heretic
Honorius restored churches in Rome and repaired aqueducts.  Died in 638.
King of Northumbria 627 Britannia Converts to Christianity
Bishops in Ireland 630 Urged to keep Easter by Pope Honorius I
Conquest of Mecca 630 Saudi Arabia Tribes join Muhammad
Muslims 632 Most of Arabian Peninsula under Islam
Pilgrimage to Mecca 632 Muhammad and tens of thousands make trip
632: Abu al-Qasim Muhammad founder of Islam and self-proclaimed prophet dies
Abu Bakr (Sunni) 632 Claims to be successor of Muhammad
Ali ibn Abi Talib (Shia) 632 Claims to be successor of Muhammad
Abu Bakr was Muhammad’s father-in-law and Ali was his cousin and son-in-law
4th Council of Seville 633 Spain All bishops of Hispania attended
Abu Bakr dies 634 He converted Uthman ibn Affan
Bishop Isidore dies 636 Seville Wrote Etymologiae encyclopedia
Umar ibn Al-Khattab 634-644 2nd Caliph sets up Muslim government
Muslims / Islamic army 638 Muslims capture Jerusalem (Holy City)
Muslim empire expands and Arabia, Iraq, Egypt, Persia, Syria establish provinces
Great Plague and famine 639 After Jerusalem was taken, famine and a great plague came over Arabia, Syria and Palestine.
Alexandria captured 641 Muslims conquer city burn much of Great Library
Umar assassinated 644 Persians kill ruler after Muslim conquer Persia
Uthman ibn Affan 644 Arabia Becomes 3rd Muslim Caliph
Quran / Koran c. 652 Qur’an is written and formalized
Ar.bp.  Honorius dies 653 5th Archbishop of Canterbury ; aided Felix
Bishop Felix dies c. 648 First bishop of ‘kingdom of the East Angles’
Mid-7th century Celtic Christian missionaries spread the faith throughout Great Britain
Between 640 and 687 there were 14 Catholic popes; Theodore served about 7 years; Martin I served about 6 and Vitalian about 15 years, 10 combined served less time.
661: Al-Hasan is said to be the 2nd Imam of all Muslims according to Shia Islam
Synod of Whitby 664 England adopts Roman Catholic faith
Ar. Bp. Theodore 668-693 A.bishop of Canterbury sets up diocese in England
3rd Council of Constantinople 680: condemns monothelitism (Armenia & Syria)
680: Wilfrid begins converting Sussex – last Saxon kingdom to become Christian
Pope Sergius I 687 Becomes pope; opposed by two antipopes
690: Theodore of Tarsus, Archbishop of Canterbury dies.  He mediated between Celtic and Catholic Christians; and was first archbishop to whom England gave allegiance.
Dome of the Rock 691 Muslim Mosque completed in Jerusalem
Codex Amiatinus 692 Oldest known copy of Latin Vulgate completed
Quinisext 692 Council codifies canon law of Eastern Church
Quinisext Ecumenical Council was convened by at Justinian II in Constantinople.  It was called the Fifth-Sixth Council; and had 211 bishops from the Eastern Roman Empire.
Archbishop Berhtwald 693 England First English born Archbishop
Berhtwald, AB of Canterbury, aided King Wihtred of Kent in developing English laws.
About 700, waterwheel technology spreads throughout Europe.  Also at this time, Christians begin to wear black to funerals; and stirrups are introduced to Europe.
Pope Sergius I dies 701 He is followed by John VI, John VII and Sisnnius
John of Damascus c. 710 Was preaching and writing works in Syria
John supported icons in worship, yet many Christians felt they were becoming idols
Moors invade Spain 711 Muslims from N. Africa invade Iberian Peninsula
Pope Constantine dies 715 Syrian took title of ‘pappas’ or ‘Pope’ – father
Matt. 23:9 – ‘do not call anyone on earth father; you have one Father… in heaven.’
Charles Martel 718 Son of Pepin becomes Prince of the Franks

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